Women's Rights: Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement

Chapter II: Power Sharing (Signed at Naivasha, Kenya on 26th May, 2004)

1.6.2.16 Equal Rights of Men and Women

(a) The equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and all economic, social, and cultural rights set forth in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights shall be ensured;

Implementation History

2005

Minimum Implementation

The 2005 CPA provided for the equal rights of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights. This provision of CPA was incorporated in the interim constitution’s Article 15.2. As such, the state was said to promote and empower women in public life. The interim constitution came into effect on 9 July 2005.1 The constitution also allowed women as well as men to pass on Sudanese nationality to their children (Article 7). Amnesty International had welcomed the emphasis on women's and children's rights in Sudan’s interim constitution.2 Nevertheless, only two out of 22 ministerial portfolios were given to women in interim transitional government in southern Sudan.3 The Legislative Council of Southern Kordofan was formed on 12 December 2005 and convened on 22 December 2005 with 54 members (30 NCP and 24 SPLM), seven of whom were women.4 Women representation in the power-sharing national assembly and the unity government is not known.

  • 1. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, March 2006.
  • 2. "Sudan's National Assembly Passes Constitution Paving Way for Former Rebel Leader to Be Vice President," AP Worldstream, July 6, 2005.
  • 3. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA."
  • 4. Ibid.
2006

Minimum Implementation

The Secretary General of the U.N., in his report, suggested that some progress had been made after the CPA in 2005, but indicated challenges remained regarding the political and economic empowerment of women.5

  • 5. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2006/728), September 12, 2006).
2007

Minimum Implementation

It was reported that the UNMIS partnered with the Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Child Affairs to formulate a work plan for the implementation of the national policy for women’s empowerment. The UNMIS gender unit also continuously provided technical support and capacity building, focusing on preventing gender-based violence and the recognition of the role of women in peace-building.6

  • 6. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2007/500), August 20, 2007.
2008

Intermediate Implementation

Some significant progress was made in terms of empowering women in political and civil life. Sudan’s president, in his address to the first Sudanese Women parliamentarian’s Forum organized by the National Organization of Sudanese Women Parliamentarians, stressed that women would be given 25 percent representation in the next parliamentary, national, and state elections.7 The National Assembly passed the National Election Act of 2008 on 7 July 2008, which gave 25 percent of the seats to a separate women’s party list.8

  • 7. "Sudan; President Affirms Special Status for Women in Allotting Posts," Africa News, March 21, 2008.
  • 8. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, February 2009.
2009

Intermediate Implementation

The UNMIS coordination mechanism was established to coordinate activities in the area of women’s participation in elections.9

  • 9. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2009/545), October 21, 2009.
2010

Intermediate Implementation

In the April elections for the National Assembly, the NCP won 82 seats for women, the SPLM won 26 seats, the Popular Congress Party (PCP) won three seats, and the Federal UMMA Party obtained one Women’s List seat. Also, in elections for the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly, the SPLM won 42 women’s seats and the SPLM-DC won one seat.10

  • 10. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, May 2010.
2011

Full Implementation

With elections of women representatives in the legislatures, provision related to equal political rights was implemented.