Paramilitary Groups: Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement

Annexure I: Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities and Appendices (Signed at Naivasha, Kenya on 31st December 2004)

Part II: The Armed Forces

22. Policing Issues and Domestic Security

22.1. In order to facilitate the removal and withdrawal of the military and paramilitary forces from areas where they were previously located and in order to return societal order and harmony, in accordance with the law, in compliance with national and international acceptable standards and with accountability to the Courts and civil Administration, the police at the appropriate level during the ceasefire shall:

22.1.1. Maintain law and public order;

22.1.2. Ensure safety and security of all people and their property;

22.1.3. Prevent and detect crimes.

22.1.4. Assist returning refugees, the displaced and other returnees to start a normal, stable and safe life in their respective communities;

22.1.5. Provide national service ( such as nationality, civil registry, identity documents (IDs), passports etc.) and other police services and make them available to all citizens in their locations;

22.1.6. Protect VIPs in collaboration with other security agencies;

22.1.7. Preserve natural resources;

22.1.8. Combat illicit trafficking in narcotics, drugs and illegal trade in fireanns and other organized and trans boundary crimes in the area;

22.1.9. Control illegal presence and movement of aliens in the area;

22.1.10. Collect data and information on criminal matters that threaten implementation of the peace agreement in the area.

22.1.11. Remove the need for the deployment of military and para-military forces in villages, communities and city streets;

22.1.12. Combat corruption at all levels of government and civil society.

Implementation History

2005

Full Implementation

The 2005 CPA requires the removal and withdrawal of the paramilitary forces (Popular Defence Forces) from areas where they were previously located. This withdrawal or removal was intended to boost the capacity of civilian police. Prior to the CPA, the paramilitary organization worked as a police force without accountability to the community or independent oversight. According to the U.N. Secretary General’s Report, “in five locations in the south, approximately 17,000 former government police remain deployed as well as the emergent police force derived from the Sudan People’s Liberation Army.”1 Available news archives, reports from the U.N. Secretary General and CPA implementation updates available from the UNMIS on the implementation of this CPA provision do not suggest that the removal or withdrawal of the paramilitary forces did not take place. This suggests that this provision of accord was implemented. Nevertheless, the withdrawal of the paramilitary forces depended on the capacity increase of the civilian police force, which did not improve significantly. 

  • 1. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2005/57), January 31, 2005.
2006

Full Implementation

Removal and withdrawal of the paramilitary forces took place in 2005.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.