Military Reform: Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement

Chapter VI: Security Arrangements (Signed at Naivasha, Kenya on 25th September 2003)

6. Common Military Doctrine

The parties shall develop a common military doctrine as a basis for the Joint Integrated Units, as well as a basis for a post Interim Period army of the Sudan, if the referendum vote is in favour of unity. The parties shall develop this common doctrine within one year from the beginning of the Interim Period. During the Interim Period, the training of the SPLA (in the South), the SAF (in the North) and the joint units (in both North and South) will be based on this common doctrine.

7. Status of Other Armed Groups (OAGs) in the Country

a. No armed group allied to either party shall be allowed to operate outside the two forces.

b. The Parties agree that those mentioned in 7(a) who have the desire and qualify shall be incorporated into the organized forces of either Party (Army, Police, Prisons and Wildlife forces), while the rest shall be reintegrated into the civil service and civil society institutions.

c. The parties agree to address the status of other armed groups in the country with the view of achieving comprehensive peace and stability in the country and to realize full inclusiveness in the transition process.

Annexure I: Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities and Appendices (Signed at Naivasha, Kenya on 31st December 2004)

Part II: The Armed Forces

16. Military Mission and Mandate

16.1. Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-sections 1 (b) and 4.1 (b) of the Agreement on Security· Arrangements, the mission and mandate for Sudan Armed Forces (SAF), Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Joint/Integrated Forces within their respective areas of deployment during the interim period shall clearly be specified within the first year of the interim period by the Joint Defence Board subject to the approval of the Presidency.

16.2. Without prejudice to sub-section 16.1 above, the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Joint/Integrated Units (JIUs) shall be charged with the mission of defending the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Sudan during the Interim Period.

16.3. The two Armed Forces and the JIUs shall be regular, professional, and nonpartisan armed forces. They shall respect the rule of law and civilian government, democracy, basic human rights, and the will of the people.

16.4. As per Article (1) (b) and (4) (b) (III) of the Agreement on Security Arrangements, the Armed Forces (SAF, SPLA and JIUs) shall undertake the responsibility of the defence of the country against threats in their areas of deployment pending appropriate decision from the JDB.

16.5. The involvement of the Armed Forces as defined in sub-section 16.4 above, in constitutionally specified emergencies, shall be determined in the Interim Constitution.

16.6. The Parties shall jointly develop a code of conduct for the members of all armed forces based on the common military doctrine that shall be developed as stipulated for in section 6 of the Agreement on Security Arrangements.

16.7. The elements of the code of conduct provided for in sub-section 16.6 above shall:

16.7.1. be informed by the provisions of sub-section 16.2 above;

16.7.2. make a clear distinction between the military functions from partisan political functions;

16.7.3. make repudiation that such forces can be used as agency of physical intimidation of the civilian population;

16.7.3. make a clear distinction between military mandate from the policing mandate during cease fire period;

16.7.4. make clear distinction between military mandate from the policing mandate during ceasefire period;

16.7.5. make clear that all members of armed forces shall not be involved in illicit activities that may affect the environment and natural resources.

17. The Joint Defence Board (JDB)

17.1. The JDB shall be composed and structured on parity basis and take its decisions by consensus. It shall be composed of the Chiefs of Staff of SAF and SPLA, their deputies and four senior officers from each Party.

17.2. The JDB shall exhibit a characteristic of well-functioning body capable of timely response to tasks and situation.

17.3. The JDB shall have a Technical Committee to be formed from four senior officers from both sides.

17.4. The Technical Committee shall undertake the duty of coordination between the two forces and resolve different problems that may ensue. It shall report regularly to the JDB in all ordinary and extraordinary sessions.

17.5. The two Commanders in Chief shall appoint the Commander and the deputy commander of the JIUs who shall be ex officio members of the JDB.

17.6. In the event of any external or internal threat, the JDB shall, subject to section 16.2 above, decide on how to address the situation. The JDB shall decide whether all forces, the JIUs or either force (SAF and SPLA) shall handle the threat alone or collectively. The JDB may also decide on the appropriate support and reinforcements that other forces shall lend to the forces facing direct threat and aggression. In a joint operation, JDB shall determine lead HQS for that operation.

17.7. The JDB shall be entrusted to work out a comprehensive framework for confidence building. Confidence building measures between the SAF and SPLA may include exchanging visits, organizing cultural and sport events, convening of joint training courses, and participating in national and religious celebrations and any other activities that shall help in building confidence.

17.8. The JDB shall form a committee to lay down the principles of the future Sudan National Armed Forces, should the result of the referendum on self determination confirm unity.

17.9. At the earliest opportunity, appointed representatives of SAF and SPLA will determine, taking into account point 17.1 of this Agreement, a staff structure in support of IDB command. They will calculate a budget and recommend how it is be resourced.

18. Redeployment

18.1. The line of redeployment of SAF and SPLA shall be South/North Border of 1/1/1956 as came in Article 3 (b), in the Agreement on Security Arrangements during the Interim Period signed on 25th September, 2003.

18.2. SAF commits to redeploy its forces as per Article 3 (b) of the Agreement on Security Arrangements to the North of South/North border of 1/1/1956 beginning from the Pre Interim Period according to the following steps:

a) Step I: Reduction by seventeen percent (17%) by D-day + 6 months;

b) Step II: Reduction by fourteen percent (14%) by D-day + 12 months;

c) Step III: Reduction by nineteen percent (19%) by D-day + 18 months;

d) Step IV: Reduction by twenty-two percent (22 %) by D-day + 24 months;

e) Step V: Complete redeployment of the remainder twenty-eight percent (28%) by D-day + 30 months.

18.3. SPLA commits to redeploy its forces pursuant to Article 3 (c) and Article 4 (c) (V) (a) of the Agreement on Security Arrangements as detailed below.

18.4. The SPLA forces in the eastern Sudan shall be redeployed to the south of North/South border of 1/1/1956 beginning from pre-interim period according to the following steps:

a) Reduction by thirty percent (30%) by D-day + four months.

b) Reduction by forty percent (40%) by D-day+ 8 months.

c) Complete redeployment of the remainder thirty percent (30%) by D-day 12 months.

18.5. The SPLA shall complete redeployment of its excess forces from Southern Blue Nile and Southern Kordofanl/Nuba Mountains within six months of the deployment of the JIUs in those areas.

18.6. Without prejudice to the Agreement on the Security Arrangements and the right of Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) Command to deploy forces all over North Sudan as it deems fit, SAF troop levels in Southern Kordofanl/Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile during the Interim Period shall be determined by the Presidency.

18.7. After the JlUs deployment in Abyei, all other forces shall be redeployed outside the area. However, the size JlUs Battalion in Abyei shall conform to JIUs organizational standards according to the Protocol between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People'& Liberation Movement on the Resolution of the Conflict in Abyei Area of 26th May, 2004.

19. Optimal Size of the Armed Forces

After the Completion of SAF redeployment to the North the parties shall begin the negotiations on proportionate downsizing. Nonetheless, the parties shall allow voluntary demobilization, demobilization of non-essentials (child soldiers and elderly, disabled) during the first year of Interim Period.

20. The Status of Joint Integrated Units

20.1. There shall be formed Joint/Integrated Units (hereinafter referred to as JIUs) during the pre-interim and the interim period from the SAF and the SPLA. This shall form the nucleus of the future Sudanese National Armed Forces (SNAP) should the result of the referendum on the right of self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan confirm unity of the country.

20.2. If the result of the referendum is in favour of secession of the South from the North, the JIUs shall dissolve with each component reverting to its mother Armed Forces to pave the way for the formation of the separate Armed Forces for the emerging states.

20.3. Notwithstanding sub-Sections 20.10.1, 20.10.2, 20.10.3, 20.10.4, and 20.10.5, formation, training, tasking and deployment of JIUs formations and sub-formations shall be completed not later than D-day + 21 months.

20.4. At the initial stage of the formation of the JIUs, SAF component shall be liable to relief "after two years of deployment". Nonetheless, they shall be locked-in by D-day + 33 months.

20.5. At the inception, the JIUs shall remain in their joint form. However, the process of full integration shall be completed by D-day + 52 months.

20.6. The JIUs as per Agreement on Security Arrangements shall fall under the command of the Joint Defence Board (JDB). Nevertheless, the two Commanders-in-Chief shall appoint the commander and deputy commander for the JIUs as the highest level who shall, by virtue of their positions, be members of the JDB. They shall oversee routine command matters of the JIUs in accordance to authority conferment by the JDB.

20.7. The JIUs command shall be exercised on parity basis between SAF and the SPLA officers with alternation of roles at the uppermost and other levels of command.

20.8. The JIUs personnel shall be treated equally. There shall be uniformity in welfare, salaries, emoluments nsions rights, supplies, armament, and equipment.

20.9. The Parties have further discussed the issue of establishing JIUs in Eastern Sudan and have decided to continue discussing the issue during the Interim Period and resolve it as they deem fit.

20.10 Training of the Joint Integrated Units

20.10.1. Both Armed Forces (SAF and SPLA) shall complete selection and organization of officers, Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and men for the JIUs within three months from the beginning of the Pre-Interim Period.

20.10.2. Notwithstanding sub-section 20.3 above, the JIUs components from both Parties shall be formed within three months from the Pre-Interim Period and co-locate in their various training centres to be trained for not less than six months after which they shall be tasked and deployed.

20.1 0.3. There shall be developed as soon as practicable a joint doctrine, code of conduct, as well as disciplinary laws, regulations, and standing operating procedures to govern the nus general training policies, programmes, disciplinary scopes and behavioral patterns.

20.10.4. In view of special status of Khartoum and Juba, the JIUs Command shall allot tasks to the nus contingents that shall be deployed to these cities by the end of the Pre-Interim Period after completion of initial joint training session that shall not exceed three months. Nonetheless, the JIUs command shall organize further training sessions for these contingents in accordance to JIUs training policy and programmes.

20.10.5. The parties shall appeal to the international community to render additional technical, material and financial support to assist in forming and training the JIUs.

20.11. JIUs Command and Control

The JIUs Headquarters is under command of JDB and shall be located in Juba. The JIUs command shall perform among other things, the following duties and responsibilities:

20.11.1. Command of the JIUs formations and units;

20.11.2. Promotion of mutual cooperation between the JIUs, SAF and SPLA at all command levels;

20.11.3. Coordination of supply and replenishments plans with the JDB;

20.11.4. Implementation of the JDB plans, policies, programmes and directives pertaining to the JIUs;

20.11.5. Appointment and transfer of JIUs officers within the discretion of the JIUs command;

20.11.6. Create and promote confidence building measures;

20.11.7. Development and execution of training programmes fro the JIUs;

20.11.8. Coordination and the CPC;

20.11.9. Resolution of disputes that may arise within the JIUs jurisdiction.

20.12. The JIUs Commanders shall exercise the following authority/responsibility:

20.12.1. Command and control of JIUs in their respective areas of command;

20.12.2. Implementation of and compliance with the directives of the JIUs Higher Headquarters;

20.12.3. Implement confidence building policies of the higher headquarters as well as create and promote confidence building measures within their power as shall be desirable;

20.12.4. Development and execution of training programmes within their command jurisdiction;

20.12.5. Performance of any other duties that may be conferred upon them by the higher headquarters.

20.13. The JIUs Composition and Organization

20.13.1 Composition

20.13.1.1. The JIUs shall initially be formed from SAF and SPLA, out of their ground forces;

20.13.1.2. By D-Day + 12 months, SPLA nominated personnel shall commence training in the service arms of the Airforce, Navy and Air Defence, so as to make available SPLA contribution to the JIUs Service Arms which shall be established as per sub-section 20.13.1.3 below;

20.13.1.3. By D-Day+36 months, the first JIUs service arms unit shall be established, others shall follow according to the graduation of qualified SPLA JIUs personnel as determined by the JDB; further training may continue according to the needs as may be decided by the JDB;

20.13.1.4. SAF component of the JIUs service arms shall be nominated and assigned as soon as the SPLA component of JIUs service arms is trained and graduated;

20.13.1.5. JIUs Service Arms of the Airforce, Navy and Air Defence shall be part of the overall number of forces of the JIUs already agreed to by the Parties.

20.13.2 Organization

20.13.2.1. The higher JIUs formation shall be division (see organizational

structure attached as appendixure 3). Thus, there shall be formed five JIUs division and one independent brigade as follows:

a) 1st Infantry Division which shall have a total strength of 9000 officers, NCOs and men and shall be deployed in Equatoria area.

b) 2nd Infantry Division which shall have a total strength of 8000 officers, NCOs and men and shall be deployed in Upper Nile area.

c) 3rd Infantry Division which shall have a total strength of 7000 officers, NCOs and men and shall be deployed in Bahr el Ghazal area.

d) 4th Infantry Division (unlike the other divisions, both 4th and 5th Infantry divisions are under-strength divisions) which shall have a total strength of 6000 officers, NCOs and men and shall be deployed in southern Blue Nile.

f) 5th Infantry Division which shall have a total strength of 6000 officers, NCOs and men and shall be deployed in southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains.

f) Independent Brigade which shall be deployed in Khartoum with the total strength of 3000 officers, NCOs and men.

20.13.2.2. There shall be formed a JIU Infantry Battalion (lnf. Bn.) for Abyei Area whose strength shall be in accordance with JIUs standards. It shall be deployed in Abyei area and attached to 3rd Infantry Division.

20.13.2.3. Infantry brigades, of not more than 3000 troops each, to compose of:

i. Brigade Command;

ii. Brigade HQ Company;

iii. Two to four infantry Battalions;

IV. Armored, artillery, engineering, transport, signal and medical corps.

20.13.2.4. The infantry battalion shall compose of:

1. Battalion Command;

ii. Battalion HQ Company;

111. Two to four infantry companies;

iv. Support Company.

20.13.2.5. JIUs battalion shall be formed of two SAF companies and two SPLA companies, whereas the HQs Company and the support company shall be mixed. The size of the forces in each locality shall not exceed one infantry battalion.

20.14 JIUs Detailed Deployment

20.14.1. First nus Infantry Division - Equatoria

a) Division Headquarters: Juba town.

b) Juba Brigade Headquarters: Juba town.

c) Subunits deployment: Around Juba town.

d) Torit Brigade Headquarter (+) Inf Bn: Torit town.

e) Subunit Deployment: Kapoeta, Yei, and Jabor.

f) Maridi BrigadeHeadquarters (+) Inf Bn: Maridi town.

g) Subunits deployment: Mondari, Yambio, Tombara.

20.14.2. Second Infantry Division - Upper Nile

a) Division Headquarters: Malakal town.

b) Malakal Brigade Headquarters (+) two Inf Bns: Malakal town.

c) Subunits deployment: Nasir, Bounj and Malut.

d) Bentiu Brigade headquarters (+) Inf Bn: Bentiu town.

e) Subunits deployment: Pariang, and Bor.

20.14.3. Third Infantry Division - Bahr el Ghazal

a) Division Headquarters: Wau town.

b) Wau Brigade headquarters (+) two InfBns: Wau town.

c) Subunits deployment: Tonj, Rumbek, and Shambe

d) Aweil Brigade headquarters (+) two Inf Bns: Aweil town.

e) Subunits deployment: Raja, Gogrial.

f) Abyei Area Independent Battalion attached.

20.14.4. Fourth Infantry Division - Southern Blue Nile

a) Division Headquarters: Dindiro town.

b) Dindiro Brigade headquarters (+) Bde Hqs (+) one Inf Bn: Dindiro.

c) Subunits deployment: Kurmuk, Geizan, Ulu.

d) Takamul Brigade headquarters (+) one Inf Bn: Takamol.

e) Subunits deployment: Damazin, Umdarfa'a, Menza.

20.14.5. Fifth Infantry Division - Nuba MOlJlltains

a) Division headquarters (+) one Inf Bn: Kadogli town.

b) Kadugli Brigade headquarters: Heiban.

c) Subunits deployment: Heiban, EI Buram, Talodi.

d) Deleng Brigade headquarters (+) one Inf Bn: Deleng town.

e) Subunits deployment: Jebel Eried, Julurl;, Urn Sirdibba.

20.14.6. Khartoum Independent Brigade

There shall be one JIUs Brigade in Khartoum that shall be deployed with the Republican Guard in Soba. The VIP Protection Force is located according to the Presidential Unit, and Capital Security Force in Jebel Awaliaa.

20.14.7. The Parties agree that the JIU s shall protect the oilfields as provided in sub-section 20.14.2 and the oil installations shall be demilitarized. In case of any threat to the oil installations, the JDB shall decide on the appropriate and necessary measures.

21. Funding of the Armed Forces

21.1. During the Interim Period, SAF forces and JIUs shall be funded by the National Government, whereas the SPLA forces shall be funded by the Government of Southern Sudan, subject to the principle of proportional downsizing as per Security Arrangements Protocol and the approval of Southern Sudan Legislature. To meet this obligation, the Government of Southern Sudan shall raise financial resources from both local and foreign sources and seek international assistance. These financial resources shall be channeled through the Bank of Southern Sudan and managed according to the principles of Wealth Sharing Protocol.

21.2. The elected National Legislature during the Interim Period shall review and finally resolve the issue of the funding of the Sudan National Armed Forces (SNAF) so as to make unity of the Sudan an attractive choice in the referendum on self-determination by the people of Southern Sudan, and to create sound basis for the formation of the future army of the Sudan that shall be composed from the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and the JIUs, should the result of referendum on self-determination confirm unity.

22. Policing Issues and Domestic Security

22.1. In order to facilitate the removal and withdrawal of the military and paramilitary forces from areas where they were previously located and in order to return societal order and harmony, in accordance with the law, in compliance with national and international acceptable standards and with accountability to the Courts and civil Administration, the police at the appropriate level during the ceasefire shall:

22.1.1. Maintain law and public order;

22.1.2. Ensure safety and security of all people and their property;

22.1.3. Prevent and detect crimes.

22.1.4. Assist returning refugees, the displaced and other returnees to start a normal, stable and safe life in their respective communities;

22.1.5. Provide national service ( such as nationality, civil registry, identity documents (IDs), passports etc.) and other police services and make them available to all citizens in their locations;

22.1.6. Protect VIPs in collaboration with other security agencies;

22.1.7. Preserve natural resources;

22.1.8. Combat illicit trafficking in narcotics, drugs and illegal trade in fireanns and other organized and trans boundary crimes in the area;

22.1.9. Control illegal presence and movement of aliens in the area;

22.1.10. Collect data and information on criminal matters that threaten implementation of the peace agreement in the area.

22.1.11. Remove the need for the deployment of military and para-military forces in villages, communities and city streets;

22.1.12. Combat corruption at all levels of government and civil society; and

22.2. In order to strengthen the effective implementation of this Agreement, the National Police may assist, as required, other police at all levels to establish and promote police service at that level;

22.3. The police shall cooperate and participate in the entire process of ceasefire implementation;

22.4. The Parties agree that the police in the territorial jurisdiction of the ceasefire shall assume their normal functions and activities, particularly in the areas where military and para-military forces had previously assumed their functions;

22.5. The Parties call upon the international community to assist in the areas of training, establishment and capacity building of police and other law enforcement agencies for the sustenance of peace and rule of law;

22.6. The Parties recognize the need for cooperation and coordination mechanism between the national police and other law enforcement agencies at all levels with regards to the implementation of this Agreement.

Implementation History

2005

Minimum Implementation

The 2005 CPA in Sudan was unique in the sense that it legitimized the existence of the Sudan Armed Force and the Sudan People’s Liberation Armed force and suggested the creation of Joint Integrated Units comprising armed personnel from both forces. The SAF and SPLA were to be withdrawn from the 1956 border between the North and the South and the JIUs were to be deployed in those areas.

The main issues included military doctrine. Additionally, the size of the military was pending until the referendum in the South Sudan. Nevertheless, the 2005 CPA provides for the establishment of the Joint Defense Board (JDB) comprising both the SAF and SPLA in parity basis with responsibility to make a decision on external and internal security threat. The JDB would form a Technical Committee out of four senior officers from both sides with the responsibility to coordinate the two forces and resolve the various problems that could ensue. Also, both sides would integrate other interested armed groups into their armed forces; and the parties were to establish an “Incorporation and Reintegration Adhoc Committee.”

According to the Accord, both arms of the armed forces (SAF and SPLA) would complete the selection and organization of officers, non-commissioned Officers (NCOs) and men for the JIUs within three months from the beginning of the Pre-Interim Period. The JIUs, were to be dissolved with each component reverting to its mother armed forces to pave the way for the formation of the separate armed force for the emerging state, should the referendum result favor for the secession of the South from the North. If the referendum would confirm the unity, the JIUs was said to be the nucleus of the future Sudanese National Armed Forces (SNAP).

The Accord requires the formation of JIUs during the pre-interim and the interim period from the SAF and SPLA, on a parity basis. Nevertheless, the delay in the establishment of the Joint Defense Board delayed in the formation of the JIUs. The JDB was established by a presidential decree on 29 December 2005. The JIU act was endorsed by the National Assembly on 19 December 2005. By the end of December 2005, it was said that the SPLM and SAF had nominated 46% and 97% personnel joining the JIUs.

Parties were behind to integrate other armed groups in existing military structures and to create functioning JIUs. The implementation of the formation of the Joint Integrated Unites provision of the ceasefire was 18 months behind schedule. Contributing to the delay was the lack of logistical support.1 Similarly, an Incorporation and Reintegration Adhoc Committee for the incorporation of the Other Armed Groups (OGAs) into the regular forces of the parties was not formed by the parties. However, parties had registered OGAs allied with either SAF or SPLA. The SAF disclosed that about 43,000 members of OGAs were aligned to it and SPLA claimed its overall strength to be about 270,000.2

  • 1. "Report of the Secretary General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2007/42), January 25, 2007.
  • 2. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2005/821), December 21, 2005.
2006

Minimum Implementation

After its formation, the JDB met for the first time on 2-3 January 2006. The Board was jointly chaired by First Lieutenant-General Abbas Arabi Abdallah, representing the SAF, and First Lieutenant General Oyai Deng Ajak, representing the SPLA. The National Assembly passed the Joint Integrated Units Act on 17 January 2006.3 The SPLA signed the Juba Declaration on Unity and Integration of SPLA and SSDF with Paulino Matip. The SSDF was the umbrella organization comprising the Majority of formerly SAF-aligned OAGs.4 At issue for the OGAs was the fact that each of the parties had provided the Ceasefire Joint Military Committee with a list of groups that were said to be aligned with each party while the actual alignment status, composition and location of the group remained opaque.5 Also, the implementation of the formation of Joint Integrated Unites provision of ceasefire was 18 months behind the schedule. Contributing to the delay was the lack of logistical support.6

  • 3. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, February 2009.
  • 4. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, February 2009.
  • 5. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2006/728), September 12, 2006.
  • 6. "Report of the Secretary General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2007/42), January 25, 2007.
2007

Minimum Implementation

The JDB regularly met, as it did in 2006. In February 2007, the parties adopted a common military doctrine and code of conduct to guide the work of JIU forces.7 It was reported that the SAF declared in May 2007 that there were no more SAF-aligned OAGs in South Sudan.8 Nevertheless, the formation of JIUs was delayed and thus the redeployment of the JIUs.9

  • 7. "Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in the Sudan," United Nations (S/2007/520), August 29, 2007.
  • 8. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," United Nations, February 2009.
  • 9. Ibid.
2008

Intermediate Implementation

The JDB regularly met in 2008. Progress related to the formation and deployment of the JIUs was made. As of 4 October 2008, the JIUs had reached 84.7% of their mandated strength of 39,639 troops, SAF soldiers comprising 52.4 percent and SPLA soldiers 47.6 per cent of the total.10 There was no report on OGAs aligned with either of the parties. 

  • 10. "Report of the Secretary General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2008/662), October 20, 2008.
2009

Intermediate Implementation

The JDB regularly met in 2009. The other armed groups were officially banded in 2006.11 On issues related to the deployment of the JIUs, both parties were slow in filling their respective quota of troops and in deployment to all eight agreed-upon locations, complaining of logistical problems. As of September 2009, the eight JIUs locations were occupied by SAF and SPLA. But still to be filled with the agreed quota in all locations: Um-darfa, Menza, Wadal Mahe. Dindiro, Ulu, Gissan, Kurmuk and Taliya.12

  • 11. "Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in the Sudan," United Nations (S/2009/545), October 21, 2009.
  • 12. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, December 2009.
2010

Intermediate Implementation

The JDB regularly met in 2010. “There has been no change on the status of the JIU since April 2009. They are at 82.6 per cent of their mandated strength of 39,639 troops.”13

  • 13. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, December 2010.
2011

Intermediate Implementation

The JIU dissolution process had officially been completed by 9 April 2011; by the end of May 2011, the movement of the SAF JIU troops from the South to the North was underway. The SPLA JIUs in Khartoum agreed to stay there until 9 July 2011.14 On 23 May 2011, the JDB informed the SPLA of an instruction from the President of Sudan to redeploy its forces to the south of the 1-1-56 boundary; the SAF would redeploy its forces to all the areas north of the boundary as of 1 June 2011.15 Since critical issues such as the size of the armed force and the common military doctrine were contingent on the referendum result favoring the unity, military reform did not take place in Sudan.

  • 14. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, December 2011.
  • 15. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, December 2011.