Military Reform: Lusaka Protocol
ANNEX 4: Agenda Item II.1 (continued):
Military Issues (II): d) Completion of the formation of the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA), including demobilisation.
I. General Principles:
2. The composition of the Angolan Armed Forces will reflect the principle of proportionality between Government and UNITA military forces as provided for in the Bicesse Accords.
3. The military personnel in excess of the number to be agreed between the Angolan Government and UNITA for the composition of FAA will be demobilized and integrated into civilian society, within the framework of a national social reintegration program to be undertaken by the Government of the Republic of Angola with the participation of UNITA and the assistance of the international community.
II: Specific Principles:
1. After the process of selection of UNITA military forces, the selected personnel will be incorporated in FAA, under the supervision of the General Staff of FAA in which the Generals of UNITA will have already been present.
3. The process of selection for, incorporation and military distribution of UNITA military forces in FAA will start after the conclusion of the quartering of all UNITA military forces.
4. During the process of completion of the formation of FAA, at the time of the selection of UNITA military forces, the composition of FAA will be made to reflect the principle of proportionality agreed between the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA.
The working group will be responsible for monitoring the following tasks concerning the completion of the formation of FAA and demobilization:
1. Selection criteria
2. Size of FAA to be agreed between the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA
3. Adequacy of the composition of FAA, based on the principle of proportionality:
--in the case of the army, the principle of parity shall apply;
--in the case of the Navy and the Air Force, UNITA military forces shall be incorporated in conformity with the provisions established by CCFA ("Acordos de Paz") and instructions from the General Staff of FAA.
The main facet of military reform as outlined in the Lusaka Accord was the military integration of UNITA forces into the national military. Negotiations over the specifics of integration would last for almost 2 years.
One year after the Lusaka Accord, the two sides engaged in sporadic talks over how many UNITA soldiers would be integrated. It was reported that negotiations on the formation of the new “joint” Angolan army had been held on 17 November 1995.1
- 1. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1995/1012), December 7, 1995.
In March, the two sides finally agreed on the number of senior posts in the new FAA to be allocated to UNITA troops. UNITA would provide the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) with 18 Generals, as well as with the Vice-Minister of Defense, Deputy Chief of the General Staff, Regional Commander, and Commander of the planned fourth Branch (UNAVEM III, S/1996/248).2
The process of military integration was beset with planning problems. Little progress had been made in the formation of the FAA as set forth in the agreement. As of September 27, only 4,000 out of the planned 26,300 UNITA troops that were to be integrated had even been selected. The selection teams were in place at the camps, but UNITA would not cooperate with the process.3
- 2. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1996/248), April 4, 1996.
- 3. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1996/827), October 4, 1996.
The United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM) announced on February 14 that 6,000 out of the scheduled 26,300 UNITA troops had been integrated into the National Army of Unity. At the time, 18,000 had been selected to be integrated.4
As of 5 June 1997, “the number of UNITA troops incorporated into the FAA reached 10,700 personnel” (UNAVEM III, S/1997/438).5
Toward the end of the year, the “Security Council in resolution 1135 (1997) approved the new measures to be taken by the international community against UNITA” for non-compliance with the Lusaka Protocols (MONUA, S/1997/959). Savimbi announced that the new sanctions would make it even more difficult for him to comply.6
Three weeks after the imposition of sanctions, UNITA severed all ties with the Government and MONUA.7
- 4. “Over 6,000 UNITA Soldiers Organized into Angola's Unity Army,” Xinhua News Agency, February 14, 1997.
- 5. U.N. Security Council. “Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III)” (S/1997/438). 5 June 1997.
- 6. U.N. Security Council. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA)” (S/1997/959). 4 December 1997.
- 7. Ibid.
The verification process broke down in light of increased violence and the sanctions placed on UNITA. MONUA reported that “there have been no contacts between the Government and Mr. Jonas Savimbi and his group, and the joint mechanisms established for the implementation of the peace process at the national and local levels, including the Joint Commission, have been paralyzed.”8
The Uppsala Conflict Data Program coded the conflict between the Angolan government and UNITA as reaching the threshold of “war” in 1998 with over 1000 total deaths in the year. Coding for this case stops December 31, 1998.
- 8. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA),” U.N. Security Council (S/1998/1110), November 23, 1998.