Education Reform: Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement

Chapter II: Power Sharing (Signed at Naivasha, Kenya on 26TH MAY, 2004)

2.5. The Government of National Unity

2.5.6 The Government of National Unity- shall be responsible for establishing recruitment systems and admission policies to national universities, national institutes, and other institutions of higher education based on fair competition, giving equal opportunity to all citizens.

2.6 Civil Service:

2.6.1.6 Additional educational opportunities shall be created for war- affected people.

Implementation History

2005

Intermediate Implementation

Under the guiding principles and directives of the state, the CPA provision related to education was incorporated in the Interim Constitution (Article 13), which was enacted in July 2005. As such, the state would promote education at all levels across the Sudan and would ensure free and compulsory education programs. Prior to incorporating the free primary education in the Interim Constitution, the National Education Plan was initiated which aimed to raise the literacy rate, especially among women, and to integrate other programmes into adult education syllabus (i.e. income-generating activities, health and agricultural education, etc.).1 Similarly, the multi-donor trust fund had provided support in the areas of government capacity-building, community development, rule of law, health, education, water and sanitation, and infrastructure development (including transport). These programs were developed in cooperation with authorities at the national and local levels.2

  • 1. "Sudan Govt Cares for Women's Healthcare and Education," Malaysia General News, May 8, 2005.
  • 2. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2011/821), December 21, 2005.
2006

Intermediate Implementation

The government reiterated its commitment to education for all and the ministry allocated a special administration for technical education. The ministry also began an ambitious program designed to qualify 100,000 basic level school teachers.3 The government of South Sudan also offered free and compulsory primary education to all children of school-going age.4 The government of South Sudan also signed an education sector accord with Kenya to help strengthen the education sector in southern Sudan.5 Detailed information related to competition and fairness in education is not available.

  • 3. "Sudan Renews Commitment to Education for All," Suna News Agency, April 25, 2006.
  • 4. "South Sudan Government to Offer 'Free, Compulsory' Primary Education," BBC Monitoring Middle East, August 8, 2006.
  • 5. "Kenya, Southern Sudan Sign Education Sector Accord," BBC Monitoring Africa, August 9, 2006.
2007

Intermediate Implementation

Detailed information related to competition and fairness in education is not available. Nevertheless, southern Sudan had planned to provide education to SPLA soldiers and other members of the armed force (about 52,000 soldiers, but the number of SPLM/A soldiers is much higher) to improve the levels of education.6 International aid agencies, including USAID, were involved in promoting education in southern Sudan. USAID promoted gender equality in education in Southern Sudan.7

  • 6. "Southern Sudan Plans to Step up Education for Soldiers," BBC Monitoring Middle East, March 6, 2007.
  • 7. "USAID Promotes Gender Equity in Education in Southern Sudan," Christian Newswire, October 24, 2007.
2008

Intermediate Implementation

Detailed information related to competition and fairness in education is not available. In Southern Sudan, however, the education minister was quoted for encouraging teaching in the mother tongue.8 But, the Ministry of Education dismissed disabled teachers.9 Nevertheless, the number of girls enrolled in schools increased from 400 in 2005 to over 40,000 in 2008.10

  • 8. "Southern Sudan Education Minister Encourages Teaching of Mother Tongue," BBC Monitoring Middle East, April 3, 2008.
  • 9. "South Sudan Ministry of Education dismisses disabled teachers," BBC Monitoring Middle East, April 7, 2008.
  • 10. "Education Officials in Southern Sudan State Say More Girls Enrolling in Schools," BBC Monitoring Middle East, April 18, 2008.
2009

Intermediate Implementation

Detailed information related to competition and fairness in education is not available. Nevertheless, the South Sudan government and UNICEF were campaigning to get millions more children into schools, despite a resources shortfall for those already in schools.11 The South Sudan Ministry of Education also launched the South Sudan Institute of Education in Rumbek, Lakes State, which was first of its kind established to train educational cadres.12 Under the multi-donor trust funds (MTDF), 100 schools were proposed to be rehabilitated but only 34 schools were under construction for three years, suggesting "erratic and insignificant achievements," according to the educational panel that presented to the Security and Public Order Committee chairman on 26 August 2008. A standing panel, the Public Accounts Committee, was tasked by the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly to investigate possible misuse of Ministry of Education funds. Funds were allegedly misused by companies contracted by the Ministry of Education to build schools in addition to misuse of scholarship funds.13

  • 11. "Sudan; South Sudan Charts Own Course in Education," Africa News, January 30, 2009.
  • 12. "South Sudan's Institute of Education launched in Rumbek," BBC Monitoring Middle East, June 27, 2009.
  • 13. "South Sudan to probe alleged misuse of education funds," Sudan Tribune, August 27, 2009.
2010

Intermediate Implementation

The Education Ministry of the Government of South Sudan had appealed for more support from donors to enhance the quality of education in the south.14 In May 2010, it was reported that over 3 million students obtained a free primary education in South Sudan.15 In order to enhance the quality of education, the government urged education institutions to embrace information communication technologies.16 Despite all these proposed reforms, corruption remained the main problem. Also, cultural attitudes and beliefs had curtailed girl’s enrollment in schools.17

  • 14. "South Sudan appeals for more donor support to ensure quality education," BBC Monitoring Middle East, January 27, 2010.
  • 15. "Over 3 million people get free primary education in South Sudan," Sudan Tribune, May 20, 2010.
  • 16. "South Sudan urges education institutions embrace ICT," Sudan Tribune, May 29, 2010.
  • 17. "South Sudan: Cultural attitudes, beliefs hindering girls' education," Sudan Tribune, June 2, 2010.
2011

Intermediate Implementation

The government of South Sudan continuously tried to improve education sector. Nevertheless, the CPA became obsolete with the secession of South Sudan as an independent state.