Demobilization: Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Annexure I: Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities and Appendices (Signed at Naivasha, Kenya on 31st December 2004)
Part III: Demobilization, Disarmament, Re-Integration and Reconciliation
23.1 The overarching objective of the DDR process is to contribute to creating an enabling environment to human security and to support post-peace-agreement social stabilization across the Sudan, particularly war affected areas.
23.2 The DDR programme shall take place within a comprehensive process of national reconciliation and healing throughout the country as part of the peace and confidence building measures.
24. Guiding Principles
24.1 In implementing the DDR programme the Parties agree that the implementing organs shall be guided by the following common principles:
24.2. The national ownership of the process and that the capabilities of the National Institutions shall be built to effectively lead the overall DDR process; for this purpose efficient planning, implementation and supervisory institutions shall be established to operate as soon as possible.
24.3. That the DDR process in the Sudan shall be led by recognized state institutions and international partners shall only play a supportive role to these institutions. The process shall be sustained through cooperation and coordination with local NGOs and active support from the international community by facilitating and extending material and technical assistance throughout the entire DDR process and the transition from war to peace.
24.4. That no DDR planning, management or implementation activity shall take place outside the framework of the recognized interim and permanent DDR institutions referred to in paragraphs 25.1 and 25.2. here under.
24.5. Fairness, transparency, equitability and consistency for determining the eligibility of ex-combatants targeted for assistance.
24.6. Ex-combatants shall be treated equitably irrespective of their previous military affiliations; as well, they shall be empowered by provision of training and information to voluntarily choose their path to reintegration. The reintegration process shall be community based and equally benefits returnees and local communities.
24.7. That the DDR is mostly a civilian process although the military input is vital. While disarmament and demobilization are mainly military, the civilian efforts in reintegration are paramount, particularly with reference to decisions of methodology and organization. The military will have input but the decisions and implementation of 'such programmes are the responsibility of the relevant institutions created for this purpose.
24.8. The DDR programme shall be, gender sensitive and shall encourage the participation of the communities and the civil society organizations with the view' to strengthening their capacities to play their role in improving and sustaining the social and economic reintegration of former combatants.
24.9. The demobilization of all child soldiers within six months of the signature of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.
24.10. The identification and registration within six months from the signature of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of all children separated from their families for family tracing and ultimate reunification;
24.11. UNICEF, JCRC and other international organizations are called upon to assist in the child component of the DDR in the Sudan;
24.12. That adequate financial and logistical support shall be mobilized by the international community including governments, governmental agencies, humanitarian organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
24.13. The observance of a high level of transparency and accountability with respect to the DDR programmes financial management.
24.14. The maintenance of an appropriate and optimal degree of flexibility to respond to the emerging needs on the ground in a timely manner.
25. DDR Institutions
25.1. To realize the best objective of the DDR process in the entire country, and to avoid any possibilities of relapsing into war, the Parties state their dedication to undertake timely steps to establish the following institutions to plan, manage and implement the DDR programmes:
25.1.1. The National DDR Coordination Council (NDDRCC), with the prime responsibility of policy formulation, oversight, review, coordination and evaluation of the progress of the Northern and Southern Sudan DDR commissions referred to in 25.1.2 hereunder. The NDDRCC shall be appointed by and accountable to the Presidency.
25.1.2. The Northern' Sudan DDR Commission (NDDRC) and the Southern Sudan DDR Commission (SDDRC) shall be mandated to design, implement and manage the DDR process at the northern and southern sub-national levels respectively.
25.1.3. The State DDR commissions shall be entrusted with the responsibility of implementation of the programmes at the state and local levels.
25.2. Until the aforementioned institutions are established the Parties agree to put in place Interim DDR bodies to:
25.2.1. Act as bases for the future Sub-National DDR institutions established in 25.1 above.
25.2.2. Coordinate and prepare detailed DDR proposals.
25.2.3. Commence technical discussion with international donors and agencies regarding partnership and funding requirements and modalities for the DDR implementation programmes.
25.2.4. Coordinate with the UN-DPKO mission on issues pertaining to DDR.
25.2.5. Prepare draft operational proposals for DDR programmes.
25.2.6. Prepare to establish formal DDR capacity building and facilitate training in DDR through seminars, workshops and study tours.
25.2.7. Coordinate joint DDR preparatory activities.
25.2.8. Prepare in collaboration with the international actors data collection, including socio-economic surveys in the areas where the DDR programmes will be implemented and undertake needs assessment to provide data on target groups.
26. Previous Contractual Obligations
Recognizing that both Parties have existing contractual arrangements with international organizations and agencies related to DDR, the Parties agree:
26.1. To commence a process of negotiations with these agencies and organizations to close down and transfer current DDR-related activities to the incoming DDR institutions.
26.2. That the interim DDR bodies shall undertake the task of leading and concluding these negotiations, and shoulder the operational responsibility of the activities thereafter.
27. Humanitarian and General Provisions
27.1. Upon signature of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the Parties shall:
27.1.1. exchange information on Missing in Action and shall trace them to their best efforts;
27.1.2. agree to lifting the state of emergency in the Sudan except in areas where conditions do not permit;
27.2. The Parties agree that the issue of the release of all civil political detainees as part of the confidence building measures, national healing and reconciliation process shall be discussed on and dealt with within the discussions on the implementation modalities.
27.3. Humanitarian law and civil and political rights shall be closely observed.
27.4. Collateral, secondaiy agreements and legislation shall not contradict this Agreement and shall be equally binding on the Parties.
27.5. The Parties shall call upon the governments at all levels, civil societal organizations, political forces, national NGOs and international community to assist and facilitate the reconciliation process at grass root levels.
(Note: for detailed timeline see CPA)
The DDR process in Sudan was recognized as very challenging given that the accord did not specifically provide detailed information regarding the number of combatants to be demobilized, disarmed and integrated into society. The accord, however, provided a phased approach by establishing an Interim DDR Program (IDDRP) before finalizing a full scale multi-year DDR program.1 Government of Sudan Armed Forces (SAF), SPLA, non-allied OGAs, and children and women associated with the fighting forces were eligible for the DDR process. The CPA established the National DDR Coordination Council and two sub-national level commissions the Northern' Sudan DDR Commission (NDDRC) and the Southern Sudan DDR Commission (SDDRC), which were mandated to design, implement and manage the DDR process at the northern and southern sub-national levels respectively. These institutional structures were agreed to be established within 30 days of the signing of the CPA. The CPA also provides for assembly locations for the SFA and the SPLA combatants for the DDR process.
As agreed, the Northern Sudan DDR Interim Authority was established and even established regional offices. Similarly, the Southern Sudan DDR Interim Authority was established and set up its regional offices. To carry out the DDR program, surveys and registration of disabled ex-combatants and women associated with armed groups were being carried out and the removal of child soldiers was expected to begin in January 2006. The UNMIS and the UN DDR unit provided assistance ranging from expert advice to demobilization packages.2
In 2005, the SAF disclosed that about 43,000 members of OGAs were aligned with it and SPLA claimed its overall strength to be about 270,000.3 It was not clear how many of the disclosed members of the armed forces were going to participate in the DDR process.
The National Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Coordination Council (NDDRCC) was established on 18 February 2006. The Minister of Presidency was the chair and other members of the council were cabinet members—as well as Chief of Staff of the SAF and SPLA, General Commissioner for DDR for the Northern States, General Commissioner for DDR for the Southern States and other dignitaries to be appointed by the Presidency. The NDDRCC has the responsibility of policy formation. Therefore, on 19 February, the Northern Sudan Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration Commission (NDDRC) was established by a presidential decree. The NDDRC had responsibility to design, implement and manage the DDR process at the northern states. The GoSS established the Southern Sudan DDR Commission (SSDDRC) and appointed its chairperson and the deputy chairperson. It was reported that the GoSS also formally endorsed the interim DDR program in January 2006.4 The SPLA, in technical support of UNICEF, had demobilized and reunited some 142 children in February 2006.5 It is not clear how demobilized child combatants were integrated into the society.
There was some momentum after the establishment of the NDDRCC and NDDRC and SSDDRC. In Southern Sudan, a technical committee on disarmament and demobilization was established in January 2007. It was also reported that the SAF conducted unilateral disarmament of its aligned former OAG members and the United National Military Observers observed the disarmament procedure. A total of 957 OAG combatants were disarmed and given a onetime payment. It did not involve the Northern and Southern Sudan DDR institutions.6
- 6. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, February 2009.
UNMIS continued to work with parties to the CPA for a plan to commence the multi-year DDR program in the Sudan. In this regard, the NDDRCC in September had agreed to conduct a pilot disarmament and demobilization program for 700-1000 combatants. There were 88 children associated with the SPLA who were demobilized in May 2008. The UNICEF DDR staff, with NSDDRC in the Blue Nile State, had also started an interim program to monitor demobilized child combatants’ participation in the integration programs.7
- 7. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, February 2009.
Important progress was made in terms of establishing the target number of DDR. It was estimated that some 180,000 combatants would participate in the DDR program, starting with 50,000 participants (25,000 each from the SAF and the SPLA) in the first phase. Approximately, 6,000 women associated with armed forces or groups (WAAFGs) and 17,500 people with disabilities as well as children associated with forces were expected to be beneficiaries of the DDR program.8 The cost of reintegrating 182,000 combatants from both sides was estimated to be $430 million. The Government of National Unity and the Government of Southern Sudan also agreed to directly contribute $250 for each participant.
The demobilization process started in February 2009 and by the end of August 2009 a total of 12,428 combatants had been demobilized. The demobilized combatants received reintegration support in the form of cash, non-food items, and coupons from the WFP for food rations for three months.9 The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA, December 2009). Also, in December of 2009, a total of 697 ex-combatants and members of special needs groups were demobilized. Those who participated in the DDR program also received counseling.10
- 8. "Disarmament, Demo and Reintegration- Fact Sheet," UNMIS, 2010, accessed February 3, 2012, http://sudanddr.org/en/facts/Factsheet%20DDR%20CPA%20areas.pdf.
- 9. "Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in the Sudan," United Nations (S/2009/545), October 21, 2009; "Disarmament, Demo and Reintegration."
- 10. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, December 2009.
According to the UNMIS, some 21,700 adult ex-combatants including women associated with armed forces or groups were demobilized in five different centers by mid-April 2010. It was also reported that over 13,000 participants received counseling on reintegration opportunities.11 As of 1 December 2010, the Sudan disarmament, demobilization and reintegration program had demobilized 33,693 ex-combatants — 23,678 in the North and 10,015 in the South — including 6,258 women.12 By the end of December 2010, the total number demobilized stood at 37,124.13 The DDR program was said to have funding shortage.
The DDR program, as of May 2011, demobilized 48,594 combatants--27,081 for SAF and 21,513 for SPLA. In Northern Sudan, a total of 36,069 DDR participants, including 5,985 female and 3,356 disabled participants, went through the demobilization process. In Southern Sudan, a total of 12,525 DDR participants, including 6,188 female and 617 disabled participants, had been demobilized. By the end of May, 31,525 (North: 19,811; South: 11,714) ex-combatants had been counseled on reintegration opportunities in the Sudan. Of these, 21,189 registered with UNDP’s DDR program implementation partners in order to receive reintegration support.14
The DDR program in South Sudan continued even after the successful secession in July 2011. Following the secession, the Republic of South Sudan DDR Commission was re-instituted by the interim National Constitution (July 2011). The commission expected to demobilize and disarm some 90,000 ex-combatants, of which a total of 12,525 were demobilized by December 2011. By December 2011, some 10,926 demobilized combatants (87%) registered with implementing partners for reintegration support training.
- 14. "The CPA Monitor-Monthly report on the Implementation of the CPA," UNMIS, December 2010.