Arms Embargo: Ouagadougou Political Agreement (OPA)

OUAGADOUGOU POLITICAL AGREEMENT 

6.1. Embargo on the importation of arms

6.1.1. The two Parties to the direct dialogue agree to request the United Nations Security Council, with the support of the Facilitator and of ECOWAS, to lift the arms embargo imposed on Côte d'Ivoire within three months after the holding ofpresidential elections.

6.1.2. The Parties also agree to request from the United Nations Security Council, with the support of the Facilitator and of ECOWAS, immediate special authorization to import the light arms necessary for the maintenance of law and order, under the supervision of the Integrated Command Centre referred to in paragraph 3.1 above.

Implementation History

2007

Intermediate Implementation

In the Ouagadougou Political Agreement, parties to the accord agreed to request the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to lift the arms embargo imposed on Ivory Coast within three months of holding post-conflict elections. Parties also requested that the UNSC immediately allow light weapons, necessary for maintaining law and order, to be imported.

On 29 October 2007, the UNSC passed Resolution 1782 and decided to extend the arms embargo by 12 months; the embargo had been in place since 2004.1 The UNSC did not authorize light weapons to be imported.

  • 1. “Resolution 1782 (2007),” United Nations Security Council (S/RES/1782 2007), October 29, 2007.
2008

Intermediate Implementation

Through Resolution 1842, the UNSC extended the arms embargo imposed on Ivory Coast until 31 October 2009. Nevertheless, the resolution called for a review of the embargo should Ivory Coast make progress in its peace process, especially in the holding of elections.2

  • 2. “Resolution 1842 (2008),” United Nations Security Council (S/RES/1842 2008), October 29, 2008.
2009

Intermediate Implementation

The UNSC, through Resolution 1893, extended the arms embargo imposed on Ivory Coast until 31 October 2010. Nevertheless, the resolution called for a review of the embargo should Ivory Coast make progress in its peace process, especially in the holding of elections.3

  • 3. “Resolution 1893 (2009),” United Nations Security Council (S/RES/1893 2009), October 29, 2009.
2010

Intermediate Implementation

The UNSC, through Resolution 1946, extended the arms embargo imposed on Ivory Coast until 30 April 201. Nevertheless, the resolution called for a review of the embargo should Ivory Coast make progress in its peace process, especially in the holding of elections.4

  • 4. “Resolution 1946 (2010),” United Nations Security Council (S/RES/1946 2010), October 15, 2010.
2011

Intermediate Implementation

The UNSC, through Resolution 1980, extended the arms embargo imposed on Ivory Coast until 30 April 2012. Nevertheless, the resolution called for a review of the embargo should Ivory Coast make progress in its peace process.5 One of the pre-conditions for the review of the embargo was the holding of elections. Elections took place in late 2010, but because armed violence ensued following elections, the UNSC made its decision based on the lack of political and security stabilization in Ivory Coast.

  • 5. “Resolution 1980 (2011),” United Nations Security Council (S/RES/1980 2011), April 28, 2011.
2012

Full Implementation

The UNSC, through Resolution 2045, replaced the arms embargo imposed on Ivory Coast in 2004 and allowed non-lethal law enforcement equipment to be imported for the purpose of maintaining public order, as well as supplies of arms and related lethal weapons to the Ivorian armed forces for use in the Security Sector Reform process.6 As such, the arms embargo in place was finally lifted in April of 2012.

  • 6. “Resolution 2045 (2012),” United Nations Security Council (S/RES/2045 2012), April 26, 2012.
2013

Full Implementation

In April 2013, Security Council Resolution 2101 extended the embargo for one year, although supplies of arms and related lethal weapons to the Ivorian armed forces for use in the Security Sector Reform process was allowed, per Resolution 2045 (2012).7

2014

Full Implementation

In April 2014, Security Council Resolution 2153 extended the embargo for one year. "It lifted the requirement to notify the sanction committee in advance about the supply of non-lethal equipment to the Ivorian security forces. It retained the required advance approval by the sanction committee for the supply of most types of weapons as clarified in a new list annexed to the resolution." Supplies of arms and related lethal weapons to the Ivorian armed forces for use in the Security Sector Reform process was allowed, per Resolution 2045 (2012).8

2015

Full Implementation

UN Resolution 2219 (2015) renewed the sanctions, including the partial embargo on arms, although supplies of arms and related lethal weapons to the Ivorian armed forces for use in the Security Sector Reform process was allowed, per Resolution 2045 (2012).9

  • 9. “Resolution 2219 (2015),” United Nations Security Council (S/RES/2219 2012), April 28, 2015.