Working at the nexus between research and practice, the Peace Accords Matrix (PAM) program is comprised of researchers and practitioners seeking to promote and facilitate a higher order of integration between these domains. The PAM program is home to the largest existing collection of implementation data on intrastate peace agreements, and PAM team members regularly provide research support to ongoing peace processes on issues of peace agreement design and implementation.

The PAM database is a unique source of qualitative and quantitative longitudinal data on the implementation of 34 Comprehensive Peace Agreements (CPAs) negotiated between 1989 and 2012. Drawing on this world class, peer-reviewed database, PAM researchers have developed a quantitative methodology to track the progress of peace accord implementation. The PAM database serves as a valuable tool for analysis, which the Kroc Institute uses to support the negotiation and implementation of peace accords, including the implementation of the Colombian peace accord.

The Team

The PAM team consists of faculty, staff, consultants and student researchers at the University of Notre Dame’s Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies.

María José Daza Bohórquez

María José Daza Bohórquez is a research intern for the Peace Accords Matrix. María’s career has focused on human rights, development, and peacebuilding. She recently served as program officer, first for human rights and then for transitional justice and humanitarian assistance, at the Swedish International Development Agency in Bogotá, assisting with the implementation of Colombia’s peace agreement. María holds a bachelor’s degree in public affairs and international relations and speaks Spanish and Portuguese. She is the recipient of a Kroc Institute Fellowship.

Elise Ditta

Elise Ditta is a Research Associate for the Peace Accords Matrix and holds a master’s degree in international peace studies from the Kroc Institute and a bachelor’s degree in international development and Spanish from Calvin College. As part of her studies, she completed a USAID Research and Innovation Fellowship in Colombia, examining urban violence and territorial peace on the Caribbean coast. She previously served as the director of communication for the Association for a More Just Society in Honduras. 

Josefina Echavarría Alvarez

Josefina Echavarría Alvarez is Director of the Peace Accords Matrix (PAM). Echavarría earned her PhD in Peace, Conflict and Democracy from the University Jaume I (Spain). She is the former Co-Director of the Research Center for Peace and Conflict at the University of Innsbruck and has taught in numerous universities around the world on peace building, peace education, gender, conflict analysis and research methods. She has also worked on diverse international cooperation projects in the fields of gender, citizenship, and curricular development for peace and conflict studies. 

Matthew Hauenstein

Matthew Hauenstein is a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the Peace Accords Matrix, where he collects and analyzes data on peace agreement implementation.  He received his Ph.D. in Political Science, with a focus on International Relations, from Florida State University in 2018.  His research examines what strategies third parties can use to promote peace during civil war.

Madhav Joshi

Madhav Joshi is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Notre Dame’s Kroc Institute and Associate Director of the Peace Accords Matrix. His research focuses on peace agreement design, implementation, and post-civil war peacebuilding. He has published on these topics in leading social science journals. He is co-editor of Understanding Quality Peace (with Peter Wallensteen, Routledge, 2018).

John Paul Lederach

John Paul Lederach is Senior Advisor to the PAM Barometer Initiative, and Professor Emeritus of International Peacebuilding at the Kroc Institute. Widely known for his pioneering work in conflict transformation, Lederach is involved in conciliation work in Colombia, the Philippines, and Nepal, plus countries in East and West Africa. He is author of 22 books, including The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace (Oxford University Press, 2005).

Gerard Martin

Gerard Martin is the Peace Accords Matrix Representative in Colombia. He is a political sociologist with a PhD from the School of Higher Studies in Social Sciences (France). From 1998 to 2008 he co-directed the Colombia Program at Georgetown University (Washington DC). He is the author of numerous articles and books, including Medellín. Mafias, City and State. 1975-2013.

Patrick McQuestion

Patrick McQuestion is a Research Associate for the Peace Accords Matrix and holds a master’s in development management and policy from Georgetown University, in combination with Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Argentina. Previous to the Kroc Institute, he worked for the Argentine Ministry of Modernization in a program mapping public sector payrolls across state entities. He holds a bachelor’s degree in English from Reed College.

Heela Najibullah

Heela Najibullah is the Peace Accords Matrix Representative for Afghanistan. She is currently doing her Ph.D. at the University of Zurich on Transcending Fault-lines of Conflict: Intergenerational Narratives of Afghan Diaspora in Switzerland and Germany. She has obtained her MA in Peace, Conflict Transformation and Security Studies at the University of Innsbruck and has published a book titled: Reconciliation and Social Healing in Afghanistan. She has also worked for more than a decade as a humanitarian worker with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies on migration issues. 

Jason Quinn

Jason Quinn is Associate Professor of Political Science and a Senior Researcher with the Peace Accords Matrix. Quinn researches civil war, with a special focus on peace agreement design and implementation. He has published on these topics in International Studies QuarterlyBritish Journal of Political ScienceJournal of Conflict ResolutionJournal of Peace ResearchNegotiation JournalInternational Interactions, International Studies Perspectives, and other outlets.

Laurel Quinn

Laurel Quinn is Associate Director of Operations for the Peace Accords Matrix (PAM) at the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, where she manages operations for several grant and research projects for the PAM program and the Colombia Barometer Initiative. She is co-editor of the volume Civil Society, Peace, and Power (Rowman & Littlefield, 2016), and she holds a master’s degree from the Seton Hall School of Diplomacy and International Relations.

Cristian Sáez Flórez

Cristian Sáez Flórez is a research intern for the Peace Accords Matrix. He has worked with several human rights and peacebuilding organizations in Colombia. Most recently, he worked as a junior specialist with the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies’ Barometer Project, monitoring Colombia’s 2016 peace agreement. Cristian holds a BA in political science from the University of Antioquia.

Bishnu Sapkota

Bishnu Sapkota is the PAM Representative in Asia. He worked for the Nepal peace process from its early stages, and was a founding general secretary of the Nepal Transition to Peace Institute (NTTP). He managed a national collaborative leadership and dialogue program under the United Nations Development Program during Nepal’s constitution writing phase. He co-authored a Nepal case study on peace process observations and constitution writing for Swisspeace, (Switzerland, 2016) and edited a booklet titled “Costs of War in Nepal” (2003). He was the editor of Nepali Security Sector: An Almanac, published by DCAF (2009). He holds an MPhil from the University of Cambridge, UK.

Carolina Serrano Idrovo

Carolina Serrano Idrovo is a researcher for the Peace Accords Matrix and holds an M.A. in International Peace Studies from the Kroc Institute, a B.A. in Political Science from the Universidad de los Andes and a Specialization in Social Evaluation of Projects from the same University. As part of her studies, she accompanied the work of grassroots organization Sembrandopaz in the Colombian Caribbean coast, on political empowerment and community building activities. She previously served as a researcher for Colombian think-tank Fundación Ideas para la Paz and the International Organization for Migrations in Bogotá focusing on the reintegration process of former combatants.