Disarmament: Arusha Accord - 4 August 1993

Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the Integration of the Armed Forces of the Two Parties (9 June 1993)

Article 67: Definition of Heavy Weapons

All weapons shall be considered as heavy weapons except pistols, UZZI sub-machine guns, sub-machine guns, rifles, light machine-guns (6.25 mm), medium machine guns (7.62 mm) and general-purpose machine guns (7.62 mm).

Armoured vehicles such as personnel carriers, tanks etc. helicopters and other military aircraft belong to the category of heavy weapons.

Upon the request of the Army Command High Council and the Command Council of the National Gendarmerie, the Neutral International Force or the expanded NMOG may authorize the use of those vehicles and aircraft for specified missions.

Article 68: Guard and Maintenance of Arms within the Cantonment Points

The Cantonment points shall be under the only control of the Neutral Internal Force. Some members of the respective parties shall, however, be authorized by the Neutral International Force to visit the Cantonment points for purposes of servicing heavy weapons.

Article 69: Ownership of Arms and Military Equipment in the Assembly and Cantonment Points

The Military equipment based in Assembly or Cantonment points and stored in magazines located in the Assembly points shall be verified and an inventory and record kept. This equipment shall remain the property of either party until the completion of the integration of the two forces.

Thereafter, the Broad-Based Transitional Government shall, at the proposal of the Army Command High Council, decide on the fate of those arms, ammunition and military equipment.

Article 70:

The Army Command High Council (ACHC)and the Command Council of the National Gendarmerie (CCNG) shall determine the type of light weapons for the National Army and the National Gendarmerie. Those weapons should be available at the training sites at the start of the integration process of the forces.

Those weapons shall be made available by the ACHC and the CCNG and shall belong to the National Army and the National Gendarmerie respectively.

Implementation History

1993

No Implementation

There was no active DDR process to hand over weapons this year.

1994

No Implementation

There was no active DDR process to hand over weapons this year.

1995

No Implementation

There was no active DDR process to hand over weapons this year.

1996

No Implementation

There was no active DDR process to hand over weapons this year.

1997

Intermediate Implementation

Rwanda’s DDR began in 1997 and proceeded in two different phases. In the first phase, which began in September 1997 and lasted until February 2001, 18,692 soldiers from the Rwandan army (RPA) - 2,364 of whom were child soldiers and 15,000 of whom were former members of Former Rwandan Armed Force - were demobilized.1 No estimates were given on the specific number of weapons turned in by troops.  

  • 1. "The Second Stage of Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Programme (RDRP Stage II)," RDRC, 2002.
1998

Intermediate Implementation

The DDR program continued.

1999

Intermediate Implementation

The DDR program continued.

2000

Intermediate Implementation

The DDR program continued until 2001. The Rwandan government sought the disarmament of Hutu militias who remained in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.2 

  • 2. "Rwanda Says No Withdrawal from Congo Without Disarmament of Hutu Militia", Associated Press, November 14, 2000.
2001

Intermediate Implementation

The second phase of demobilization started in December 2001 and ended in December 2008. In this phase, a total of 20,000 ex-combatants from RPA/RDF and 12,500 members of other armed groups were expected to be demobilized. By the end of March 2008, 22,362 RDF were demobilized, thereby exceeding the target number. Another 6,397 ex-combatants from other armed groups including 661 child combatants were demobilized.3 Those mobilized received insertion benefits and reintegration allowances. Turning in arms was part of the DDR processes, but many produced no weapon. No estimates were given on the specific number of weapons turned in by troops.  

  • 3. "DDR-Rwanda,"Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission, January-March 2008, 4, accessed September 19, 2011, www.rdrc.org.rw.
2002

Intermediate Implementation

The DDR program continued until 2008.

Postscript: It was reported that Rwanda destroyed 6,000 small arms in late 2004.4