Demobilization: National Pact

TITLE II ON THE FINAL CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND ON THE SETTLEMENT OF QUESTIONS EMERGING FROM THE SITUATION OF ARMED CONFLICT

7. Within sixty days following the signature of the Pact, a programme will be put into effect comprised of the following measures:

A -Within the framework of measures for restoring confidence, eliminating factors of insecurity, and the installation of a permanent state of security:

-all the combatants of the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad will be integrated into the various uniformed forces of the State, on an individual and voluntary basis and in accordance with criteria for assessing competence,

-special units of the armed forces will be created for one year, composed mainly of integrated combatants from the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad,

-an internal security corps will be instituted {Gendarmerie, Goum Guards, Police} composed of all sections of the local populations including integrated combatants from the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad, which will be provided to local authorities within their police powers,

-special units of the army will be created, open to all sections of the local populations, whose mission will be limited to the preservation of the integrity and external security of the country's frontiers.

Those dispositions which refer to the integration of all the combatants and members of the Movements and Fronts mentioned above, are contingent upon the return of the latter with their arms. This operation will be carried out in conjunction with the Ceasefire Commission;

The security and physical protection of the re-integrated combatants and members of the Movements and Fronts, as well as that of the repatriated displaced populations, will be entirely guaranteed;

Implementation History

1992

No Implementation

The demobilization of Tuareg rebels did not take place. 

1993

No Implementation

The demobilization of Tuareg rebels did not take place. 

1994

No Implementation

The demobilization of Tuareg rebels did not take place. 

1995

Minimum Implementation

The process of encamping former rebels in cantonment sites started in November 1995. The Malian government could not find a donor to fund the cantonment process, and only had encouragement from the UNDP. The initiation of the cantonment process was financially challenging because the cantonment dossier reported that the Ministry of the Armed forces and the Veterans had figures of 9,000 potential candidates for demobilization. This would cost the government about five billion CFA Francs. However, a mission was established to find the candidates for demobilization from armed movements and it found that fewer than 2,000 persons were potential candidates. The ministry subsequently estimated that as many as 3,000 combatants were to be demobilized for a cost of about 900 million CFA Francs.1 The cantonment process started on 15 November 1995. 

  • 1. Robin-Edward Poulton and Ibrahim ag Youssouf, A Peace in Timbuktu: Democratic Governance, Development and African Peacemaking (United Nations Publications, 1998), 115.
1996

Full Implementation

The cantonment process started in November 1995 and closed in January 1996. The Malian government extended the cantonment deadline before starting the integration and the demobilization processes. A total of 2,681 combatants from five different rebel groups were encamped in cantonments in five different locations. Among those encamped, 1,648 were integrated into various uniformed armed forces and civil administration positions. The remainder ex-combatants received a demobilization premium of 55,000 CFA Francs (less than $100), which was significant in poverty stricken Mali.

The demobilization process was financed by the UN Trust Fund. Those 3,000 ex-combatants who surrendered their arms received a $200 premium and the 7,000 more ex-combatants who were identified later and did not go through the cantonment process received $100.2

  • 2. Ibid., 116-118.
1997

Full Implementation

Tuareg combatants were demobilized in 1996.

(Note: The demobilization of ex-combatants was completed in 1996. The National Pact of 1992 did not specifically provide for the integration of demobilized ex-combatants. But, the reintegration program was carried out by the UNDP. The Support Programme for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Ex-combatants in Northern Mali (PAREM) was created and funded by the UNDP’s trust fund. In May 1996, 6,000 ex-combatants who did not go through the cantonment process participated in the PAREM programs. In 1997 this number increased to 7,795 with the participation of an additional 1,659 cantoned ex-combatants who were not taken into the army or civil administration. A total of 866 projects were funded benefiting 9,509 ex-combatants. As a pre-condition for the initial funding for a program, each registered ex-combatants was required to develop a viable project.3)

  • 3. Ibid., 123-132.
1998

Full Implementation

Tuareg combatants were demobilized in 1996.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.