Demobilization: Arusha Accord - 4 August 1993

Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the Integration of the Armed Forces of the Two Parties (9 June 1993)

Paragraph 3: Disengagement of Forces. Definitions.

Article 55: Definitions

An Assembly zone is a portion of the national territory within which the Assembly and Cantonment points of each of the two parties shall be located Assembly points are centres where specific groups of servicemen of the two Forces shall be confined and their identification conducted. Those centres shall be the starting point of the formation, integration and demobilization process that shall be conducted under the supervision of the Neutral International Force.

Cantonment points are places identified for the storage of heavy weapons outside the Assembly points.

Chapter III. Demobilization Process

Section 1: Principles

Article 147

Elements of the two Forces, namely the Rwandese Armed Forces and the RPF Forces which shall not have been retained among the nineteen thousand (19,000) servicemen and gendarmes shall be demobilized.

Article 148

Each party, i.e. the Coalition Government on the one hand, and the RPF on the other, shall specify those elements among its personnel to be demobilized and make a list of them.

Article 149

Demobilization is a process beginning with the formal publishing of lists of servicemen to be demobilized and ending with the final implementation of the process of integration of the demobilized personnel into civil life, in accordance with the timetable attached to the present Protocol as Annex IV.

The publishing of lists shall only take place after the disengagement and verification by the competent organs have been conducted and upon completion of the joint training phase. Servicemen to be demobilized shall remain under the responsibility of the Broad-Based Transitional Government until they have been posted, taking into account their categories.

Article 150

Upon completion of the separate training, elements to be demobilized may be put together in separate Assembly points within the respective zones. The Command Council of the National Gendarmerie shall decide, depending on the circumstances, on the need to put them together, taking especially into account the social administration requirements for the elements to be demobilized.

Article 151

Demobilization shall be a gradual process which shall adapt itself to the programme of integration of each demobilized serviceman, in line with the timetable for the demobilization attached as Annex IV.

Article 152

Upon the completion of the demobilization process, each serviceman/gendarme shall be given a demobilization certificate. This certificate is a document testifying that the holder is an ex-serviceman and he/she is entitled to certain benefits given to war veterans.

The Certificate shall testify that the military or gendarme services are terminated and that the bearer was properly demobilized. Copies of that certificate shall be kept within the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Interior and Communal Development as well as the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration.

A card for ex-servicemen shall also be issued to the demobilized personnel and shall especially bear the following particulars: family name, first name, rank, domicile, a photo, date of birth, certificate number and date of issuance.

Section 2: Demobilization Modalities

Sub-Section 1: General Conditions

Article 153: Lump sum Demobilization Allowance

Each serviceman/gendarme to be demobilized shall be paid a lump sum demobilization allowance in constant value of Rwandese Francs, amounting to:

- One hundred thousand (100,000) RWF for Corporals, Privates and Gendarmes.

- Two hundred thousand (200,000) RWF for Non-Commissioned Officers - 2nd Category.

- Three hundred thousand (300,000) RWF for Non-Commissioned Officers - 1st Category.

- Four hundred thousand (400,000) RWF for Junior Officers.

- Five hundred thousand (500,000) RWF for Senior Officers.

The Broad-Based Transitional Government shall specify modalities of the distribution of those allowances.

The invalid and handicapped whose incapacity to perform their duties shall be testified by a registered physician, shall be paid a monthly invalidity allowance and the Government shall take charge of the education of all their children in Public or subsidized Private Schools.

Sub-Section 2: Specific Modalities for Demobilization per Categories of the Personnel to be Demobilized

Article 155

The personnel having the means to take care of their own integration into civil life shall be discharged upon completion of usual formalities.

Article 156

The personnel to be directly absorbed into the civil service shall be demobilized as soon as the absorption capacities of that sector will have been communicated.

Article 157

The personnel to undergo a short or long training or follow familiarization programmes shall be demobilized as soon as opportunities for their training shall have been confirmed.

Article 158

The handicapped or invalid shall take advantage of special programmes designed for socio-economic integration. They shall fall under the responsibility of the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration as soon as possibilities of their integration will have been identified.

Article 159

The personnel whose integration in the civil life shall be contingent upon integration in the Rwandese society, provided for in the Repatriation Programme shall be under the responsibility of the organs responsible for the implementation of the repatriation programme, as soon as such bodies are in a position to implement those programmes.

Article 160

The personnel who do not fall under any of the above categories shall be demobilized as soon as the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration and the competent organs shall be in a position to make room for job opportunities for them.

Section 3: Follow-up of the Demobilized Personnel

Article 161

The issue pertaining to the reserve of the National Army and to the compulsory national service shall be considered by the Broad-Based Transitional Government for appropriate action. The demobilized personnel may, on their own volition, become members of the Reserve.

Article 162

The Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration shall include a Service responsible for the implementation of the programme of integration of the demobilized personnel in the socio-economic life. It shall also ensure the follow-up of the demobilized personnel after their social integration. The Government shall specify modalities of collaboration between the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration and other departments concerned with the matters of the demobilized personnel, especially the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.

Article 163

The Army Command High Council and the Command Council of the National Gendarmerie shall decide whether it is appropriate and on the time for the separation of the personnel selected to constitute the National Army and the National Gendarmerie from those to be demobilized, and shall take into account the administrative facilities required by the social services responsible for the discharge and reintegration of the demobilized personnel.

Implementation History

1993

No Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1994

No Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1995

No Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1996

No Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1997

Intermediate Implementation

Rwanda’s DDR proceeded in two different phases. In the first phase, which began in September 1997 and lasted until February 2001, 18,692 soldiers from the Rwandan army (RPA) - 2,364 of whom were child soldiers and 15,000 of whom were former members of Former Rwandan Armed Force - were demobilized.1

  • 1. "The Second Stage of Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Programme (RDRP Stage II)," RDRC, 2002.
1998

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1999

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

2000

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

2001

Intermediate Implementation

The second phase of demobilization started in December 2001 and ended in December 2008. In this phase, a total of 20,000 ex-combatants from RPA/RDF and 12,500 members of armed groups were expected to be demobilized. By the end of March 2008, 22,362 RDF were demobilized, thereby exceeding the target number. However, out of the 12,500, only 6,397 ex-combatants from armed groups including 661 child combatants were demobilized.2 Those mobilized received insertion benefits and reintegration allowances.

  • 2. "DDR-Rwanda, January-March 2008," Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission, 4, accessed September 19, 2011, www.rdrc.org.rw.