UN Peacekeeping Force: Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement
UN, International and Internal Verification
Annexure I: Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities and Appendices (Signed at Naivasha, Kenya on 31st December 2004)
15. UN Peace Support Mission
15.1. The Parties agree to request the United Nations to constitute a lean, effective, sustainable and affordable UN Peace Support Mission to monitor and verify this Agreement and to support the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement as provided for under Chapter VI of the UN Charter;
15.3. International monitoring shall be carried out by UN, considering that the official working languages in Sudan are Arabic and English, who may make the use of the services of UN protection unit. The size of the UN Peace Support Mission, including any UN force protection element, shall be determined by the UN in consultation with the Parties.
The 2005 CPA provides for the establishment of UN Peace Support Mission to monitor and verify this Agreement and to support the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement as provided for under Chapter VI of the UN Charter. Accordingly, the security council by its resolution 1590, established the United National Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) on 24 March 2005. The UNMIS consisted of 10,000 personnel, 715 police personnel and the appropriate civilian components. The Mission’s headquarters was established in Khartoum and the Joint Monitoring Coordination Team in Juba. The deployment of the UNMIS military component moved very slowly. By December 2005, only 4,291 personnel were deployed including 468 military observers.
Following the signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement on May 2006, the UN Secretary General, in his 28 July 2006 (S/2006/591) report to the Security Council, suggested a UN Peacekeeping force of as many as 18,600 troops to protect civilians, especially IDPs living in camps across Darfur’s three states. The UN Security Council by its resolution 1706 (2006) expanded the mandate of the UNMIS to include its deployment to Darfur and authorized a maximum of up to 17,300 personnel and up to 3,300 civilian police personnel. The request of the Secretary General to accept the UN peacekeeping role in Darfur, however, was rejected by the Sudanese government. As an alternative, the Security Council by its resolution 1769 (2006), authorized the establishment of the United Nations-African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID). The UNMIS continued its support mission “by providing good offices and political support to the parties, monitoring and verifying their security arrangements and offering assistance in a number of areas, including governance, recovery and development.”1 By 27 August 2006, 9,608 military personnel (695 observers, 8,727 troops, 186 staff officers) and 666 civilian police personnel were deployed under UNMIS.2
- 1. "UNMIS- United Nations Mission in Sudan- Background," accessed January 20, 2012, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unmis/background.shtml.
- 2. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2006/728), September 12, 2006.
The UN mission, along with its observation and verification of ceasefire implementation, continuously engaged in implementing its mandate related to promoting political support and reconciliation, DDR, electoral assistance, civilian protections, human rights monitoring and promotion. By 17 July 2007, the UNMIS had 9,414 military personnel and 656 police force.3
- 3. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2007/500), August 20, 2007.
The UN mission, along with its observation and verification of ceasefire implementation, continuously engaged in implementing its mandate related to promoting political support and reconciliation, DDR, electoral assistance, civilian protections, human rights monitoring and promotion. By 7 October 2008, the UNMIS had 8,560 military personnel and 593 police force.4
- 4. Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2008/662), October 20, 2008.
As of 22 September 2009, 9,275 of the authorized 10,000 military personnel were deployed under UNMIS, consisting of 483 military observers, 193 staff, and 8,599 troops. As of 15 September 2009, there were 666 members of the police force, which was 93% of the mandated strength of 715. The UNMIS revised benchmarks and indicators of progress of the period 2009-2011 on CPA provisions related to security and stability, elections, referendums, implementation of CPA protocols, wealth sharing, human rights monitoring, humanitarian recovery and development, and rule of law.5
- 5. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2009/545), October 21, 2009.
As of 30 December, the UNMIS military component had deployed 9,745 of the 10,000 troops authorized (466 military observers, 198 staff officers, and 9,081 troops). Similarly, out of an authorized 715 police personnel, 662 were deployed. The UNMIS police provided training to the Southern Sudan Police Service on referendum security and assistance with the preparation of referendum security plans.6
- 6. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan," United Nations (S/2010/681), December 31, 2010.
As the southern Sudanese voted to secede from Sudan and became an independent state on 9 July 2011, the Secretary General forwarded a letter from the Government of Sudan to the Security Council on 31 May 2011. The government of Sudan had decided to terminate the presence of UNMIS as of 9 July 2011.7 Nevertheless, the government of southern Sudan had requested for a follow-upUN mission in South Sudan. Due to South Sudan’s complex and fragile regional environment, internal security concern and challenges to build institutional capacity of the state along with protecting civilians, the Secretary General recommended an establishment of a multidimensional UN operation in South Sudan (UNMISS) for four years under Chapter VI. The recommended military strength was 7,000 troops (of all ranks) and 900 police personnel.8 The UN Security Council established the UNMISS for an initial period of one year on 9 July 2011 by its Resolution 1996. The Mission was mandated “to consolidate peace and security, and to help establish the conditions for development with a view to strengthening the capacity of the Government of the Republic of South Sudan to govern effectively and democratically and establish good relations with its neighbors.”9
The UNMIS faced challenges related to maintaining peace as well as hold referendum. Despite the fact that the UNMIS fulfilled its mandate related to referendum, it failed to protect civilians from violence.