UN Peacekeeping Force: Ouagadougou Political Agreement (OPA)

OUAGADOUGOU POLITICAL AGREEMENT

6.2. Zone of confidence

6.2.1. In order to allow the free movement of people and goods, the two Parties to the direct dialogue agree to request the impartial forces of Licorne and UNOCI to dismantle the zone of confidence, in accordance with paragraph A.4 of the document on Management of the zone of confidence, referred to as Code 14.

Implementation History

2007

Intermediate Implementation

The Ouagadougou Political Agreement had a provision that parties to the accord request the impartial forces of Licorne and the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) to dismantle the zone of confidence. In fact, when the agreement was signed on 4 March 2007, more than 8,000 UN peacekeepers and French troops (Licorne) were already on the ground.1 Resolution 1528 of the United Nations Security Council had authorized the deployment of peacekeepers in 2004.

After the Agreement in March 2007, UNOCI and Licorne troops were involved in the management of the zone of confidence as well as in the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) process. The UN Security Council extended the mandate of UNOCI and Licorne until 15 January 2008; and by December 2007, 8,033 troops, 750 police personnel, and 450 civilian police remained deployed.2

  • 1. “Twelfth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2007/133), March 8, 2007.
  • 2. “Fourteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2007/ 593), October 1, 2007; “Fifteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2008/1), January 2, 2008.
2008

Intermediate Implementation

Resolution 1795 (2008) of the United Nations Security Council extended the mandate of UNOCI and Licorne for an additional six months until 30 June 2008. Peacekeepers had achieved some success in terms of redeploying mixed units (units comprised of state armed forces and rebel forces) in the former zone of confidence.3 UNOCI and Licorne were involved in providing national security, along with managing the DDR process.4 The Security Council extended the mandate of UNOCI and Licorne until 31 January 2009.5 By the end of 2008, there were 8,020 troops, 750 police personnel, and 387 civilian police deployed.6

  • 3. “Sixteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2008/250), April 15, 2008.
  • 4. “Sixteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2008/250), April 15, 2008.
  • 5. “Eighteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2008/645), October 13, 2008.
  • 6. “Nineteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/21), January 8, 2009.
2009

Intermediate Implementation

The mandate of UNOCI and Licorne was extended until 31 July 2009 by the UN Security Council through Resolution 1865 (2009). UNOCI focused on securing and supporting the implementation of the accord, which included identification of the population and supporting the electoral process.7 By the end of 2009, there were 7,191 troops, 744 police personnel, and 394 civilian police.8 Licorne, however, reduced its peacekeeping troops from 1,800 to 900.9 The mandate of UNOCI and Licorne was extended until 31 January 2010.10

  • 7. “Twentieth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/196), April 13, 2009
  • 8. “United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (23rd progress report),” United Nations Security Council (S/2010/15), January 7, 2010.
  • 9. “Twenty-first progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/344), July 7, 2009.
  • 10. “Twenty-second progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/495), September 29, 2009.
2010

Intermediate Implementation

The Mandate of UNOCI and Licorne was extended by the UN Security Council for an additional six months until 31 July 2009 by Resolution 1865 (2010).11 Due to the continued presence of armed militias and an incomplete DDR process, UNOCI increased its mobility to secure and support the implementation of the agreement.12 The mandate of the peacekeeping operation was extended for an additional six months by the UN Security Council in Resolution 1880 (2010).13 By end of September 2010, UNOCI had 7218 troops, 748 police personnel, and 432 civilian police.14

  • 11. “Twentieth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/196), April 13, 2009.
  • 12. “Twentieth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/196), April 13, 2009.
  • 13. “Twenty-second progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/495), September 29, 2009.
  • 14. “Twenty-second progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/495), September 29, 2009.
2011

Full Implementation

After contested presidential elections in November 2010, forces loyal to former rebels and to the sitting president, Mr. Laurent Gbagbo, engaged in full-fledged violence. Resolution 1962 (2011) of the UN Security Council extended the mandate of UNOCI and Licorne until 30 June 2011. Peacekeepers were deployed to provide security and defuse tensions between forces loyal to each side.15 Due to severe security vulnerability, the size of the UNOCI force was increased. By the end of December 2011, there were 9,616 troops, 995 police personnel, and 394 civilian police deployed.16

  • 15. “Twenty-seventh progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2011/211), March 30, 2011.
  • 16. “Twenty-ninth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2011/807), December 29, 2011.
2012

Full Implementation

The UN Security Council, in Resolution 2000 (2011), extended the mandate of UNOCI until 31 July 2012.17 While the election-related dispute was finally resolved and the security situation improved throughout the country with the capturing of Mr. Laurent Gbagbo, elements of the Forces Républicaines de Côte d’Ivoire (FRCI), formerly the Forces Nouvelles, were engaged in various violent activities. UNOCI’s presence was needed to support the government and to address the security challenges in the country.18 By the end of June 2012, there were 9,297 troops, 999 police personnel, and 364 civilian police personnel.19

  • 17. “Special report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2012/186), March 29, 2012.
  • 18. “Special report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2012/186), March 29, 2012.
  • 19. “Thirtieth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2012/506), June 29, 2012.
2013

Full Implementation

Despite gradual improvements, the overall security situation in Côte d’Ivoire remained "fragile," reported the UN, particularly along the border with Liberia. High levels of violent crime throughout the country, including banditry committed by elements of the Forces républicaines de Côte d’Ivoire (FRCI), dozos (traditional hunters), former combatants and others, as well as recurrent incidents of intercommunity violence, were reported.  UN Resolution 2112 (2013) was passed which extended UNOCI's mandate to June 30, 2014.20

In December, the strength of the UNOCI military component stood at 8,669 military personnel and 435 police. The UNOCI military component was deployed in 10 battalions, including 4 in the west, 3 in the east and 3 in Abidjan, as well as enablers. "In consultation with the Government, UNOCI continued to plan the drawdown and reconfiguration of its military presence, which will consist of 7,137 military personnel by 30 June 2014, concentrating on high-risk areas."21

  • 20. “Thirty-third progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2012/761), December 24, 2013.
  • 21. Ibid.
2014

Full Implementation

The security situation remained "fragile," especially along the border with Liberia.  The UNOCI force continued to reconfigure so that it would be more mobile and concentrated in high-risk areas, pursuant to resolution 2162 (2014), in which the Security Council decided to reduce the mission’s authorized military strength to 5,437 personnel by 30 June 2015.22

As of December, 840 troops had been withdrawn. The strength of the UNOCI military component stood at 6,274 military personnel and 388 police. A total of 1,120 troops were deployed in the Abidjan sector, 3,018 in the west and 2,159 in the east23

  • 22. “Thirty-fifth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2014/892), December 12, 2014.
  • 23. Ibid.
2015

Full Implementation

UN Resolution 2162 (2014) called for the reduction of the mission’s authorized military strength to 5,437 personnel by June 30, 2015; in March, troop levels stood at 5,883.24