UN Peacekeeping Force: Lusaka Protocol

ANNEX 3: AGENDA ITEM II.1: MILITARY ISSUES (I): III. MODALITIES:

6. Reinforcement of existing United Nations personnel, both military observers and armed peacekeeping forces.

Timetable of the Bilateral Cease-Fire Modalities:

Phase two: Step one begins with the reinforcement of existing United Nations personnel, both military observers and armed peacekeeping forces. This reinforcement will permit the withdrawal of UNITA military forces from areas that they occupy, the effective verification and monitoring of those being abandoned by UNITA military forces, and the verification and monitoring of Government forces which continue to remain "in situ".

Implementation History

1994

No Implementation

No troops were deployed in November or December.

1995

Full Implementation

In a 5 March 1995 report, the Secretary General reported that the deployment of UN peacekeeping troops could not take place until certain measures were put in place such as “an effective cease-fire; the full disengagement of Government and UNITA forces; the setting up of verification mechanisms; the establishment of reliable communication links between the Government, UNITA and UNAVEM; the provision to, and verification by, UNAVEM of all relevant military data, including troop itineraries; the designation of all quartering areas; the withdrawal of troops to the nearest barracks; and the early start of de-mining activities” (UNAVEM III, 1995). It was noted that troops would be deployed only if these conditions were met by 25 March. The deployment was scheduled to begin on 9 May 1995.1

As of 30 November 1995, the UNAVEM-3 military component was deployed with 6,184 military personnel, including 331 military observers at 60 locations. The number of civilian police observers (CIVPOL) was 253. Their mandate was to verify and monitor the Angolan National Police, the demobilization of the Rapid Reaction Police, and criminal investigations of human rights violations.2

  • 1. “First Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1995/177), March 5, 1995.
  • 2. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1995/1012), December 7, 1995.
1996

Full Implementation

As of 29 March, the total size of UNAVEM’s military and police personnel was reported to be 7,071. At that time, UNAVEM III was the largest United Nations peace-keeping operation.3 

As of 27 September, the strength of UNAVEM III military and police personnel stood at 7,264.4

  • 3. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1996/248), April 4, 1996.
  • 4. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1996/827), October 4, 1996.
1997

Full Implementation

“As at 1 June 1997, the strength of the military component of UNAVEM III, including the military observers and staff officers, stood at 4,700 personnel, down from the peak level of over 7,000 military personnel in 1995.”5

  • 5. “Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1997/438), June 5, 1997.
1998

Full Implementation

In January, MONUA reported that its military component was being downsized and repatriated according to the plans of the Security Council. The current size of formed units and staff officers was stated as being 1,604 as of 9 January 1998. It was stated that 8 military observer teams were closed and 15 handed over to CIVPOL, the civilian police component. The total size of military observers was expected to be reduced to 90 officers by 31 January 1998. As of 7 January 1998, the Annex put the number of MONUA “troops” at 1,558.6 

The last MONUA report of 1998 put troop size at 547.7The Uppsala Conflict Data Program coded the conflict between the Angolan government and UNITA as reaching the threshold of “war” in 1998 with over 1000 total deaths in the year. Coding for this case stops December 31, 1998.

  • 6. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA),” U.N. Security Council (S/1998/17), January 12, 1998.
  • 7. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA),” U.N. Security Council (S/1998/1110), November 23, 1998.