UN Peacekeeping Force: Arusha Accord - 4 August 1993

Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the Integration of the Armed Forces of the Two Parties (3 August 1993)

Article 53: Composition The Neutral International Force shall be under the responsibility and command of the United Nations and shall be composed of contingents provided by countries selected by the Secretary General of the United Nations. Before deciding on a definite list of those countries, he shall require the approval of the two parties. The Neutral Military Observer Group (NMOG) may, with certain arrangements between all the parties concerned, be partly or entirely integrated into the Neutral International Force, or perform certain duties specifically entrusted to the Neutral International Force.

Implementation History

1993

Full Implementation

On 5 October 1993 the UNAMIR was established and the UNAMIR commander arrived in Kigali on 22 October 1993 followed by an advance party of 21 military personnel on 27 October. On November 1, 1993, the NMOG II was integrated into UNAMIR. The UNAMIR continue to function both as peacekeeping operation and verification mission.1

1994

Full Implementation

As the establishment of transitional government was delayed, the security situation deteriorated. Prominent political leaders were assassinated. It was reported that the UNAMIR escorted RPF convoy was ambushed. Under the grave security situation, the secretary general recommended that the UNAMIR should continue to support the negotiations and recommended an extension of the UNAMIR’s mandate. Accordingly, the UN Security Council extended the mandate of UNAMIR until 29 July 1994. However, on 6 April an aircraft carrying President Juvénal Habyarimana of Rwanda and President Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi returning from peace negotiations in Tanzania crashed at Kigali airport killing all those on board. This incident was followed by the months of genocidal violence. Due to the continuing violence and lack of acceptance of a ceasefire agreement, On 21 April 1994, the Security Council adopted Resolution 912 that reduced the strength of UNAMIR and adjusted the mandate of the UNAMIR to act as an intermediary between the parties in an attempt to secure ceasefire agreement and resume humanitarian reliefs including the security of civilians. As of early May the UNAMIR strength was 444 personnel.2

On 13 May 1994, however, the Secretary-General recommended a new mandate for UNAMIR, which increased the personnel to a total of 5,500 troops. The Security Council, adopted Resolution 918 (17 May 1994), which authorized the expansion of the UNAMIR to 5,500 troops and imposed an arms embargo on Rwanda. The objective of the UNAMIR’s expanded mandate was to promote security in all sectors of Rwanda and create conditions for return and settlement of refugees and IDPs as well as support the humanitarian response. By October, all 5,500 troops were deployed and by 15 november 80 of 90 police observers authorized for UNAMIR were deployed.3 Related to the creating climate of security in camps and facilitating the resettlement of IDPs, In this regard, the UNAMIR undertook an operation from 13 to 15 December 1994 to enhance security in the Kibeho and Ndago displaced persons camps where disruptive elements had been active.4 According to the Secretary General’s report, 60 human rights monitors were deployed in the country to monitor the condition of returning refugees and IDPs. The UNMIR also helped the government to restore its administration capacity in western zones (Source: UN Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council, S/1994/1133, 6 October 1994).

  • 2. Ibid.
  • 3. Ibid.
  • 4. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1995/107), February 6, 1995.
1995

Full Implementation

The UNAMIR Continued to monitor the security situation. As of January 1995, UNAMIR’s strength was 5,740 all rank forces who were providing security in the IDP camps and the border region. The mission helped in establishing suitable conditions and a favorable climate for the lunching of Operation Retour, which was an integrated inter-agency initiative aimed at facilitating the safe resettlement of IDPs. The UNHCR and the UN Volunteers continued to monitor the human rights situation.5 By the end of November, the force level stood at 1,783 troops and 37 staff officers and 285 military observers.6 The UNAMIR also provided security to the International Tribunal and the Human Rights Field Operations. By the end of November 1995, the UN Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda had some 120 members deployed in Kigali and in 10 field offices located throughout the country.7

The UNMIR troops had been deliberately targeted as the UNAMIR headquarters was hit by grenades and small arms fire on 15 February. While investigating the attack the following day, eight members of a UNAMIR patrol were injured by a landmine. Similarly on March 5, three grenades were thrown at the guard post which injured to soldiers.8 The Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) continued to deny UNAMIR access to part of the country, searched and seized UNAMIR vehicles and equipment and participated in anti-UNAMIR demonstrations. The UNAMIR and RPA used to hold meetings on a fortnightly basis which did not take place for months.9

UNAMIR’s civilian police component continued to assist in training a new integrated national police force. As of April report by the UN Sectary General, UNAMIR civilian police component was expecting to complete the training of 300 gendarmes and 20 instructors. It was requested to train additional 400 gendarmes before the training of 100 instructors. The police component also assisted the National Gendarmerie in operational requirements to ensure that the gendarmes were ready and properly equipped for deployment after their training.10 The civilian police component, as part of the UNAMIR’s monitoring and investigatory activities, were deployed in a team of 3-4 observers in each of Rwanda’s 11 prefectures. The observers worked closely with local authorities, UN agencies and NGOs and assisted human rights and the UNAMIR personnel.11 By the end of the year, there were 85 civilian police observers deployed, who continued to perform monitoring activities. By the end of November, the civilian police component trained some 403 gendarmes and training of additional 515 was scheduled to be completed by December. It was said that the civilian police would train 918 out of 6,000 trained gendarmes needed.12

The Secretary General advised the Security Council on 1 December 1995 that national reconciliation in Rwanda required the creation of conditions for the safe return of refugees and the extension of UNAMIR’s mandate was desirable.13 The Rwandan government, however, officially informed the Secretary General on 8 December 1995 that the UNAMIR as peacekeeping mission did not respond to Rwanda’s priority needs. The government, however, indicated the continued presence of UN for the purpose to assist rehabilitation and reconstruction, including technical expertise, financial assistance and equipment.14 For the smooth withdrawal of the UNAMIR, the Security Council by its resolution 1029 (1995) of 12 December, extended the mandate for a final period until 8 March 1996.15

  • 5. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1995/107), February 6, 1995.
  • 6. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1995/1002), December 1 1995.
  • 7. Ibid.
  • 8. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1995/297), April 9, 1995.
  • 9. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1995/457), April 9, 1995.
  • 10. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1995/297), April 9, 1995.
  • 11. Ibid.
  • 12. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1995/1002), December 1, 1995.
  • 13. "Rwanda-UNAMIR Facts and Figures."
  • 14. Ibid.
  • 15. Ibid.
1996

Full Implementation

The mandate for the UN Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR), ended on 8 March 1996. After the withdrawal of UNAMIR, UN opened its office in Rwanda with major activities to coordination the UN activities at a senior level and serve as an advisory office for Rwanda.16 The UNAMIR concluded its mandate in March 1996.

  • 16. "Rwanda; UN secretary-general's envoy outlines role of new UN office," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, April 26, 1996.
1997

Full Implementation

The UNAMIR concluded its mandate in March 1996.

1998

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.