UN Peacekeeping Force: Accra Peace Agreement
ARTICLE IV: INTERNATIONAL STABILIZATION FORCE
1. The GOL, the LURD, the MODEL and the Political Parties agree on the need for the deployment of an International Stabilization Force (ISF) in Liberia. Accordingly, the Parties hereby request the United Nations in collaboration with ECOWAS, the AU and the ICGL to facilitate, constitute, and deploy a United Nations Chapter VII force in the Republic of Liberia to support the transitional government and to assist in the implementation of this Agreement.
2. The ECOWAS Interposition Force is expected to become a part of the International Stabilization Force.
3. The Parties request the ISF to assume the following mandate:
(a) Observe and monitor the ceasefire;
(b) Investigate violations of the security aspects of this agreement and take necessary measures to ensure compliance;
(c) Monitor disengagement and cantonment of forces of the Parties and provide security at disarmament/cantonment sites;
(d) Collect weapons at disarmament sites and elsewhere and ensure that all the weapons so collected are properly accounted for and adequately secured;
(e) Assist in the coordination and delivery of humanitarian assistance to displaced persons, refugees, returnees and other war-affected persons;
(f) Facilitate the provision and maintenance of humanitarian assistance and protect displaced persons, refugees, returnees and other affected persons;
(g) Verify all information, data and activities relating to the military forces of the Parties;
(h) Along with ECOWAS and the International Contact Group on Liberia, provide advice and support to the Transitional Government provided for in this Agreement on the formation of a new and restructured Liberian Army;
(i) Assist with security for elections;
(j) Take the necessary means whenever the need arises and as it deems within its capabilities, to protect civilians, senior political and military leaders under imminent threat of physical violence;
(k) Coordinate with ECOWAS in the implementation of this Agreement.
4. The Parties expect that units of the ISF shall be selected from countries acceptable to all the Parties to the Ceasefire Agreement.
5. The Parties to this Agreement call on the ISF to remain in place until otherwise determined by the UN Security Council and the elected Government of Liberia.
ARTICLE XXIX: INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE
1. In view of the recent appointment of the UN Secretary-General's Special Representative in Liberia, the Parties call for the urgent establishment of a consolidated United Nations Mission in Liberia that will have the resources to facilitate the implementation and coordination of the Political, Social, Economic and Security assistance to be extended under this Agreement.
ANNEX 1: We the Parties to this Agreement... Hereby agree as follows:
7. International Stabilization Force (ISF). The Parties agree on the need for the creation and deployment of an international stabilization force and commit themselves to cooperation with it. They shall accord complete freedom of movement to the ISF at all times in the execution of their duties.
The Security Council resolution of 1509 (2003) from 19 September 2003 mandated the deployment of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) for a period of 12 months. It also instructed that authority be transferred from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) mission in Liberia (ECOMIL) to the UNMIL. The United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) assumed peacekeeping responsibilities from ECOMIL on 1 October 2003, at which point all 3,600 ECOMIL troops in Liberia were reassigned to UNMIL. By 12 December, the UNMIL troops consisted of 5,900 military personnel. The Security Council resolution gave a wider mandate to the UNMIL. This mandate ranged from supporting the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement, to security reform and the implementation of the peace process.1
- 1. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2003/1175), December 15, 2003.
The UNMIL continued to rapidly deploy troops in the early months of 2004. By March 12,731 troops were deployed alongside 518 civilian police personnel. By May the troops numbered above 14,000 military personnel and in December this figure had increased to 14,541, with the number of police personnel at 1,115. The UNMIL managed the DDRR process which had begun again on 15 March 2004.2
The UNMIL also monitored and mentored the newly formed Liberian National Police (LNP) and managed the recruitment and training of the new LNP members. Prior to recruiting new members for the LNP, the UNMIL provided training to the 530 LNP officers operating as the interim police force. As part of the police restructuring and recruitment process the UNMIL established an "integrity bank." This was essentially a compilation of background information regarding the candidates for the LNP. In December, 9,353 personnel from the original LNP police force had been registered with the UNMIL and 854 recruits had completed training through the National Police Academy.3
Throughout the year, the UNMIL also assisted in building state capacity by providing human rights training for the LNP and other government personnel. Representatives from the UNMIL also met with the National Electoral Committee and other relevant parties to discuss the provisions of a draft electoral reform bill.4
The UNMIL's troop and police deployments remained at approximately 15,000 and 1,100 personnel respectively throughout 2005. The UNMIL continued to provide border security for Liberia with air, mobile, and foot patrols. UNMIL personnel also engaged in cordon and search operations to find and destroy illegal weapons. Peacekeepers also participated in infrastructure building projects throughout the country, especially where it was necessary to facilitate the deployment of UNMIL and humanitarian assistance.5
- 5. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2005/674), December 7, 2005; (S/2005/560), September 1, 2005.
Throughout the year, the UNMIL had a strong presence in Liberia. As of December 2006, there were 207 military observers, 110 civilian staff members, 13,994 troops and 1,098 civilian police. The UNMIL remained active in the recruitment and the training of the police personnel.6
- 6. "Secretary General’s Report to the UN Security Council," United Nations (S/2006/958), December 11, 2006.
The UNMIL had a very strong presence in Liberia throughout 2007. By August 2007, there were 207 military observers, 117 civilian staff members, 13,799 troops and 1177 civilian police. During this year, the UNMIL achieved its major goal of training 3,500 police officers. The UNMIL remained actively engaged with the rehabilitation of ex-combatants, the consolidation of state authority, and the promotion of human rights, national reconciliation, and the rule of law, as well as economic recovery and reconstruction.7
- 7. "Secretary General’s report to the UN Security Council," United Nations (S/2007/479), August 8, 2007.
The UNMIL’s presence remained strong in 2008. There were 194 military observers, 125 civilian staff members, 11,728 troops and 1,092 civilian police officers.8
- 8. "Secretary General’s report to the UN Security Council," United Nations (S/2008/553), August 15, 2008.
With Resolution 1836 (2008), the Security Council extended the mandate of the UNMIL until September 2009. As of August 2009, there were 135 military observers, 82 civilian staff members, 9,970 troops and 488 civilian police officers.9
- 9. "Secretary General’s report to the UN Security Council," United Nations (S/2009/411), August 10, 2009.
In September 2009, the Security Council again extended the mandate of the UNMIL until 30 September 2010 (Resolution 1995). By August, the mission’s strength was slightly reduced with 128 military observers, 87 civilian staff members, 7,837 troops and 510 police officers.10
- 10. "Secretary General’s report to the UN Security Council," United Nations (S/2010/429), August 11, 2010.
The Security Council further extended the UNMIL’s mandate until 30 September 2011 with Resolution 1938 (15 September 2010). As of February, there were 128 military observers, 83 civilian staff members, 7,853 troops and 485 civilian police officers. The mission remained engaged with reforming the security sector, building state capacity, holding elections, upholding human rights and with other issues including natural resource management.11
- 11. "Secretary General’s report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2011/72), February 14, 2011.
As of 2012, UNMIL was operational in Liberia. The UN Security Council passed a resolution (S/RES/2066/2012) and decided to decrease the military strength of the mission by 4,200 personnel in three phases between 2012 and 2015. The council, however, made a decision to increase the number of police force by 420 personnel.