Economic and Social Development: Comprehensive Peace Agreement

3.6. A common minimum program for socio-economic transformation in order to end all forms of feudalism shall be prepared and implemented on the basis of mutual understanding.

3.7. Policies shall be formulated to implement a scientific land reform program by doing away with the feudal land ownership practice.

3.10. Policies shall be pursued to provide land and socio-economic security to backward communities like the landless squatters, bonded labourers, tillers, bonded domestics, bonded cattle-tenders and such other groups.

3.12. A common development concept shall be adopted for the socio-economic transformation of the country and for making the country advanced and economically prosperous in a just manner within a short span of time.

3.13. Policies shall be followed for ensuring the professional rights of workers and increasing investment for the promotion of industries, trade, export etc. in order to significantly enhance employment and income generating opportunities.

7.5.1. Both sides are committed to respect and protect the individual's right to livelihood through employment of their choice or acceptance.

7.5.2. Both sides are committed to respect and guarantee the right to food security of all the people. They assure that there shall be no interference in the use, transportation and distribution of food items, food products and food grains.

7.5.3. Both sides accept the fact that the citizens’ right to health should be respected and protected. Both sides shall not obstruct the supply of medicines and health related assistance and campaigns, and express commitment to provide medical treatment to those injured in course of the conflict and to work for their rehabilitation.

7.5.4. With the realization of the fact that the right to education to all should be guaranteed and respected, both sides are committed to maintaining a congenial academic environment in educational institutions. Both sides agree to guarantee that the right to education shall not be violated. They agree to immediately put an end to such activities as capturing educational institutions and using them, abducting teachers and students, holding them captives, causing them to disappear, and not to set up army barracks in a way that would adversely impact schools and hospitals.

7.5.5. Both sides agree that the private property of any individual shall not be seized or usurped unlawfully.

7.5.6. Both sides believe in the fact that industrial production should continue, the right to collective bargaining and social security in the industrial establishments should be respected and the establishment and workers should be encouraged to seek peaceful settlement of any disputes between them without disturbing the industrial climate of the country, and respect the standards of work as determined by the International Labour Organization.

Implementation History


No Implementation

No developments observed this year.


No Implementation

A common minimum program (CMP) of interim government was finalized and the interim government was formed in April 2007, but CMP and other socio-economic progisions in CPA were not implemented.


No Implementation

Once the Constituent Assembly elections took place on 10 April 2008, the CMP was no longer required.1 Nevertheless, the National Planning Commission had prepared a three-year interim plan that dictated the CMP’s objectives regarding socio-economic issues.2 One of the CMP’s objectives was to nationalize royal property. This was implemented, but the other provisions related to socio-economic development, such as the reconstruction of destroyed infrastructure, the common development strategy and effective social reforms and welfare programs, the enforcement of educational facilities and health institutions as peace zones, the creation of an investment-friendly environment, the indictment of willful defaulters, and the end to strikes and bandas were either not implemented or violated.

Issues related to scientific land reform is yet to be dealt with.

No plans have been devised to deal with to either food security or an individual’s rights to livelihood through employment.

While the supply of medicine and health-related campaigns and assistance had not been obstructed, victims of conflicts did not receive adequate treatment or rehabilitation support.

The Maoists continued to seize private property and/or did not return the private property that had been seized during the conflict. The land reform provision of the CPA has yet to be implemented.

Notwithstanding the facts that parties were committed to not disrupting the industrial climate and that workers were encouraged to seek peaceful settlements to their disputes, organized laborers and trade unions frequently called strikes in industrial sectors.

  • 1. "Nepal’s Election and Beyond," International Crisis Group, Asia Report N°149, 2008.
  • 2. "Three-Year Interim Plan: Approach Paper," Government of Nepal National Planning Commission, 2007.

No Implementation

Socio-economic reforms sought in the 2006 CPA have not been implemented. As a matter of fact, the socio-economic reforms are a second priority for all parties, including the Maoist party. The economy grew by 1.32% in 2006, 1.44% in 2007, 4.15% in 2008, 2.66% in 2009.3

  • 3. "World Development Indicators," World Bank, 2012, accessed August 1, 2012.

No Implementation

Socio-economic reforms sought in the 2006 CPA have not been implemented. No developments observed this year.


No Implementation

No developments observed this year.


No Implementation

Economic reform provisions of the accord remain unfulfilled. As a matter of fact, there were serious threats to property rights as the Maoist-led government sought to legalize the conflict ear transactions of the seized land by the Peoples’ Government of the Maoist party. The move was criticized by the opposition parties as lands were looted by the Maoists during conflict. The parties also obstructed the proceedings of the parliament.4 The government decided to distribute land ownership certificates for plots purchased, sold and transferred by the “Revolutionary Council” through the Land Revenue Office.

  • 4. "Oppn slams legalisation of war-era land dealings," Kathmandu Post, January 18, 2012.

No Implementation

Political stalemate and focus on holding elections for the Constituent Assembly election for the second time dominated the government policy and programs, and therefore economic and social development were not prioritized. The scientific land reform remains an elusive goal. The Maoist party, however, reiterated its commitment to return land and property confiscated during the conflict to their rightful owners.5

  • 5. "After 13-hr marathon, parties okay cj govt,” Kathmandu Post, March 14 , 2013.

No Implementation

No developments observed this year.


No Implementation

While the CPA called for developing a common development concept for socio-economic transformation of the country, this has not been done. Similarly,  the scientific land reform agenda has now been neglected even by the rebel Maoists. The Maoist-led government in 2008 and the CPN-UML led government  in 2010 had established two separate high level commissions on scientific land reform. Both of these commissions failed to produce any policy recommendation.6  

  • 6. “There is hope,” Kathmandu Post, Oped, February 6, 2015.