Cease Fire: Lusaka Protocol


1. Re-establishment of the cease-fire;

I. Definition and General Principles

1. The reestablished cease-fire consists of the cessation of hostilities between the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA with a view to attaining peace throughout the national territory.

2. The reestablished cease-fire shall be total and definitive throughout the national territory.

3. Overall supervision, control and verification of the reestablished cease-fire will be the responsibility of the United Nations acting within the framework of its new mandate, with the participation of the Government and UNITA.

Specific Principles relating to the Reestablished Cease-fire

1. Bilateral and effective cessation of hostilities, movements and military actions "in situ" throughout the national territory.

2. Setting up of verification and monitoring mechanisms by the United Nations, within the framework of the new mandate.

3. Withdrawal and quartering of all UNITA military forces (paragraph 8 of United Nations Security Council resolution 864). UNITA shall provide the United Nations with updated, reliable and verifiable information concerning the composition of its forces, armament, equipment and their respective locations.

4. Verification and monitoring by the United Nations of all troops identified as FAA. The Government shall provide the United Nations with updated, reliable and verifiable information concerning the composition of its forces, armament, equipment and their respective locations.

5. The FAA will disengage from forward positions under an arrangement that will allow verification and monitoring by the United Nations during the withdrawal and quartering of UNITA military forces.

6. Repatriation of all mercenaries in Angola.

7. Free circulation of persons and goods.

8. Within the framework of the process of selection of the personnel for the completion of the formation of the FAA, the United Nations will carry out the collection, storage and custody of the armament of UNITA military forces at the time of quartering.

9. Collection, storage and custody of all the armament in the hands of civilians.

10. Release of all civilian and military prisoners detained or withheld as a consequence of the conflict, under the supervision of the ICRC.

Timetable of the Bilateral Cease-fire Modalities


Initialing of the agreement by the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA on general and specific principles and procedures concerning the agenda items of the Lusaka II Talks.

D + 10

Meeting of the general staffs of the FAA and the military forces of UNITA under United Nations auspices with UNAVEM and the observers present to establish the technical modalities of the cessation of hostilities "in situ" for:

1. The disengagement of forces;
2. Logistical matters;
3. The setting up of verification mechanisms;
4. Communication lines;
5. Movement itineraries;
6. Specific numbers, type and location of forces;
7. Quartering areas for UNITA forces.

D + 15

Date of the formal signing of the Protocol of Lusaka by the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA and beginning of its implementation. Public announcements by the Government of Angola and UNITA on the re-establishment of the cease-fire.

D + 17

Phase one

The first phase consists of five steps that must be taken by both sides:

1. Step one begins with the end of all offensive movements and military actions "in situ" throughout the national territory. Both sides are restricted from moving. The cessation of hostilities "in situ" means that military forces will stay where they are. Military forces can be supplied with food and medicines under the verification and monitoring of the United Nations. They cannot receive any military equipment, lethal or otherwise. All offensive movements and military actions are prohibited. Prior to the arrival of United Nations observers, the general staffs of both parties are encouraged to take joint measures to reduce the likelihood of cease-fire violations and to investigate incidents. The United Nations will be notified of the evacuation of sick and wounded combatants to ensure control and verification.

2. Step two begins with the installation of verification, monitoring and control mechanisms (to include triangular communications) by the United Nations. This step includes notification by each side of all the relevant military data to the United Nations. The United Nations will create and put in place UN teams to monitor and verify the cessation of hostilities throughout the national territory and investigate alleged cease-fire violations. United Nations assets will be deployed on a prioritized basis.

3. Step three begins with the release of all civilian and military prisoners detained or withheld as a consequence of the conflict, under the supervision of the ICRC.

4. Step four involves the limited disengagement of forces in areas where forces are in contact (both sides will disengage) under the supervision of the United Nations. Both sides will be made aware of any movements that occur. In places where troops are in contact, the forces of both sides will stop firing and position themselves in a defensive posture. Both sides will conduct a limited disengagement (this will be a small movement to avoid direct or indirect fire) with the assistance of the United Nations. The disengagement will be coordinated and agreed to by the United Nations, the FAA and UNITA forces. UNITA troops will pull back to an area designated by the United Nations and agreed to by the general staffs. FAA forces will pull back to their nearest barracks. The disengagement will be supervised by the United Nations. In places where FAA and the military forces of UNITA are not in contact, both sides will merely remain where they are. The United Nations will be officially informed of the locations of these units by both sides. The modalities of resupply specified in step one still apply. In all cases, both sides will furnish the United Nations with details concerning their respective forces to include number of men, composition and type of force, type of equipment and specific location. This will allow the United Nations to install the appropriate verification, monitoring or control mechanisms.

5. Step five involves the repatriation of all mercenaries in Angola.

D + 45

Phase two

The second phase consists of six steps:

1. Step one begins with the reinforcement of existing United Nations personnel, both military observers and armed peacekeeping forces. This reinforcement will permit the withdrawal of UNITA military forces from areas that they occupy, the effective verification and monitoring of those areas being abandoned by UNITA military forces, and the verification and monitoring of Government forces which continue to remain "in situ."

2. Step two involves the United Nations in coordination with both sides establishing quartering areas, itineraries, and identifying means for the conduct of the movement of the military forces of UNITA to quartering areas. For United Nations planning purposes, the number of quartering areas is expected to be at least twelve. During this step, Government and UNITA forces continue to remain in place. Once conditions have been established for the quartering of UNITA forces, the United Nations will notify both sides of the specific modalities of the withdrawal.

3. Step three starts with the movement of the military forces of UNITA to quartering areas. As the military forces of UNITA withdraw, the United Nations will verify and monitor those areas being vacated. The FAA will continue to remain in place and wil l not be permitted to occupy the areas being abandoned by the military forces of UNITA until the integration of the military forces of UNITA into the FAA. At the same time as UNITA military forces are moving to quartering areas, Government forces, in coordination with the United Nations, can pull their forces back to areas where they can be easily verified and monitored by the United Nations. In most cases, Government forces will return to the areas where they are headquartered. The concept is that Government forces will be centralized for the ease of verification. However, no movement of forces will take place without United Nations notification and verification. Movements of forces will be progressively monitored and verified by the United Nations and will be conducted based on the availability of assets. United Nations personnel will be deployed in accordance with the new United Nations mandate.

4. Step four involves the completion of the quartering of the military forces of UNITA and the collection, storage and custody of their armaments under the supervision and control of the United Nations. It also includes the start of the collection, storage and custody of all the armaments in the hands of civilians by the National Police with verification and monitoring by the United Nations. The operation to collect all the lethal war materiel of UNITA's military forces will be conducted directly by the general staff and the command elements of these troops under United Nations verification, monitoring and control. The United Nations will, as part of a consecutive action, collect this lethal war materiel and will proceed to store and take custody of it as previously agreed. Ammunition and materiel storage locations will be located in separate areas from the quartering locations.

5. Step five consists of the conclusion of the quartering process, the return of UNITA generals to the FAA, the beginning of the selection of the military forces of UNITA for FAA and demobilization of excess forces. Selection for the FAA and demobilization of the military forces of UNITA will only begin once the quartering process has been completed.

6. Step six includes the verification by the United Nations, in accordance with its mandate, of the free circulation of persons and goods.

Implementation History


No Implementation

Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leaders signed a peace agreement in Lusaka in November 1994. Observers to the event expressed their immediate skepticism to the press that the ceasefire would hold.1

Portuguese television reported on 17 November 1994 that government troops and UNITA rebels were still fighting. UNITA claimed that after the ceasefire, the government attacked rebel positions throughout the country. The claim was denied by President dos Santos.2

Government forces dropped bombs on Bimbe near Huambo city in the central highlands, killing 11 people.3

UNITA broadcasted that the government continued to attack UNITA positions near Huambo province.4

  • 1. “Angola Warring Parties Agree to Six-Day Ceasefire,” Deutsche Presse-Agentur, November 16, 1994.
  • 2. “Fighting Continues in Angola Despite Ceasefire,” Deutsche Presse-Agentur, November 17, 1994.
  • 3. “Angola Troops Kill 11,” The Independent (London), November 30, 1994
  • 4. “Angola: UNITA Says Government Attacking UNITA-Controlled Positions in Huambo,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 16, 1994.

Minimum Implementation

UNITA military leaders and government leaders met in February to discuss violations. Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) leaders remarked that UNITA was operating as if there had been no accord and not pulling back to the agreed upon areas.5

The UN Angola Verification Mission-2 investigated a report that the FAA had launched an attack on a UNITA position near Quilombo.6

Angola government troops attacked UNITA strongholds in April in Huila Province. Residents in Huila said that they were in a war.7

UNAVEM-3 reported that 47 of the planned 52 team verification sites for monitoring the ceasefire had been established.8 

The Joint Commission held its 12th regular session on 28 March 1995. It declared phase one of the disengagement of forces as adequately completed.9

UNAVEM-3 reported 137 ceasefire violations in a month.10

UNITA leaders reported that they had uncovered a secret government “war plan” to be carried out against UNITA in the future in an effort to take UNITA’s territory.11 

The New York Times ran a story on competition between groups of Government soldiers and groups of UNITA soldiers mining the Luachimo River for diamonds. Many of the attacks between the two sides were reported as being committed by “freelancers”, often times Generals from both sides that fought only to keep mining.12 

In September, 105 civilians were killed in a rebel attack on Calepi. Residents said that the attacks were personal in nature.13

UNAVEM reported 77 ceasefire violations in October and 71 in November, but concluded that the military situation remained calm in most regions.14

  • 5. “Angola: FAA, UNITA Generals Meet in Waku Kungo, Agree to Limited Disengagement,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 6, 1995.
  • 6. “Angola: Government Troops Reportedly Violate Cease-Fire,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 15, 1995.
  • 7. “Angola: Government Forces Reportedly on the Offensive in Huila Province,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, April 10, 1995.
  • 8. “Second Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1995/274), April 7, 1995.
  • 9. Ibid.
  • 10. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1995/588), July 17, 1995.
  • 11. “Angola: UNITA Sources on Government Forces' "War Plan", Breaches of Cease-Fire in East,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, August 18, 1995.
  • 12. "Foes in Angola Still at Odds, Over Diamonds,” The New York Times, September 15, 1995.
  • 13. "Angola Government Military Claims 105 Dead in UNITA Rebel Attack,” Associated Press Worldstream, September 21, 1995.
  • 14. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1995/1012), December 7, 1995.

Minimum Implementation

Alioune Blondin Beye, the special U.N. envoy to Angola, reported that the peace process in Angola was badly stalled, with both sides still deployed and engaging each other. "Two years? This is beginning to look like a very long time," concedes Mr. Beye.15 

From 27 June to 4 October, UNAVEM reported 55 ceasefire violations (roughly 18 per month).16

  • 15. “Angola: U.N. Officials Worry as UNITA Edges Away From Peace,” IPS-Inter Press Service, October 8, 1996.
  • 16. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1996/827) October 4, 1996.

Minimum Implementation

In November, the UN mission in Angola reported that “ceasefire violations by both the former UNITA rebel group and government forces have escalated in the past month." MINUA reported that over roughly a two week span, 30 ceasefire violations took place, with 14 in the previous week.17

As an indicator of escalating conditions on the ground, the UN mission issued a statement asking the government to “renounce any idea of unleashing a military offensive against the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).”18

MONUA military and civilian police observers, particularly in UNITA-controlled areas, were prevented from carrying out their patrols on several occasions and were even harassed and physically attacked.19

  • 17. “UN Says Ceasefire Violations on the Rise in Angola,” Agence France Presse, November 5, 1997.
  • 18. Ibid.
  • 19. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA),” U.N. Security Council (S/1997/959), December 4, 1997.

No Implementation

In March, 2 UN helicopters were shot at by UNITA troops in the Cambundi Catembo area, which was under UNITA control. Another similar attack on a UN helicopter took place on 18 February in Malanje Province.20

MONUA reported that “Armed attacks against villages, local government authorities, as well as United Nations and other international personnel, have become an almost permanent feature.”21

MONUA observers confirmed various troop movements of the Angolan Armed Forces “in Malange, Uige, Huambo, Lunda Norte and Lunda Sul Provinces.”22 

Major-General Phillip Sibanda of the Zimbabwean army, the former commander of the United Nations Observer Force in Angola, stated that his view of local conditions indicated that the FAA and UNITA were engaged in a “military build-up” to possibly resume war.23 

Over 200 people died in a massacre in the small village of Mussuku as surrounding troops bombed the village. The government stated that UNITA was responsible for the attack and declared that it would retaliate against UNITA. "The government cannot cross its arms when UNITA is kidnapping young people and forcing them into military training, acquiring military equipment, sabotaging the country's infrastructure and attacking and occupying strategic places." 24

In the last issuance of 1998, MONUA reported that the Angolan government and UNITA forces had continued to conduct extensive military operations and that MONUA personnel, under phase IV of their security plan, would withdraw from all provinces.25 

Media sources reported that the Angolan countryside was at war.26

The Uppsala Conflict Data Program coded the conflict between the Angolan government and UNITA as reaching the threshold of “war” in 1998 with over 1000 total deaths in the year.27

  • 20. “Angola Peace Monitor,” Africa News 4, no. 7 (March 1998).
  • 21. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA),” U.N. Security Council (S/1998/524), June 17, 1998.
  • 22. Ibid.
  • 23. “UN Military Commander Says War Build-Up Underway in Angola,” Deutsche Presse-Agentur, June 2, 1998.
  • 24. “Angola Nears Civil War Outbreak: After Four Years, Peace Talks End Amid Massacre,” The Ottawa Citizen, July 26, 1998.
  • 25. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA),” U.N. Security Council (S/1998/1110), November 23, 1998.
  • 26. "UNITA: Back to the Path of War,” Africa News, August 5, 1998.
  • 27. "UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia," Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), accessed February 22, 2013, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.