Military Reform: General Peace Agreement for Mozambique

Protocol IV.I. Formation of the Mozambican Defence Force

i. General principles

1. The Mozambican Defence Force (FADM) shall be formed for service throughout the national territory.

2. The FADM:

(a) Has as its general purpose the defence and safeguarding of the country’s sovereignty, independence and territory. During the period between the cease-fire and the time when the new Government takes office, the FADM may, under the FADM High Command, act in cooperation with the Police Command to protect civilian inhabitants against crime and violence of all kinds. Additional functions of the FADM shall be to provide assistance in crisis or emergency situations arising in the country as a result of natural disasters and to provide support for reconstruction and development efforts;

(b) Shall be non-partisan, career, professionally trained, and competent; it shall be made up exclusively of Mozambican citizens who are volunteers and are drawn from the forces of both Parties. It shall serve the country with professionalism and respect the democratic order and the rule of law. The composition of the FADM should preclude all forms of racial or ethnic discrimination or discrimination based on language or religious affiliation;

3. The process of forming the FADM shall begin after the entry into force of the cease-fire immediately following the inauguration of the Commission provided for in Protocol I of 18 October 1991, to be called the Supervisory and Monitoring Commission (CSC). This process shall be completed prior to the commencement of the election campaign;

4. The process of forming the FADM shall be conducted simultaneously with the concentration, disarmament and integration into civilian life of the personnel demobilised in stages as a result of the ceasefire. The Government and RENAMO shall be responsible for contributing units drawn from the existing forces of each side; this process shall proceed until the new units of the FADM have been formed, with all existing units being demobilised when the FADM has reached full strength.

5. The neutrality of the FADM during the period between the cease-fire and the time when the new Government takes office shall be guaranteed by the Parties through the Commission referred to in section I.iii.1.a of this Protocol.

6. By the time of the elections, only the FADM shall exist and shall have the structure agreed upon between the Parties; no other forces may remain in existence. All elements of the existing armed forces of the two Parties which are not incorporated into the FADM shall be demobilised during the period envisaged in section VI.i.3 of this Protocol.

ii. Personnel

1. The Parties agree that the troop strength of the FADM up until the time when the new Government takes office shall be as follows:

(a) Army: 24,000

(b) Air Force: 4,000

(c) Navy: 2,000

2. The personnel of the FADM in each of the service branches shall be provided by the FAM and the forces of RENAMO, each side contributing 50 per cent.

iii. FADM command structures 1/

1. The parties agree to establish a Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambican Defence Force (CCFADM) on the following basis:

a) CCFADM shall have specific responsibility for overseeing the process of forming the FADM and shall operate under the authority of CSC;

(b) CCFADM is the body responsible for the formation of the FADM until the time when the new Government takes office. FADM shall be headed by a High Command (CS), which shall be subordinate to CCFADM. After the new Government takes office, the FADM shall be placed under the authority of the new Ministry of Defence or any other body which the new Government may establish;

(c) CCFADM shall be composed of representatives of the FAM and the RENAMO forces as members, who shall be assisted by representatives of the countries selected by the Parties to advise in the process of forming the FADM. CCFADM shall be inaugurated on the date of the entry into force of the ceasefire (E-Day);

(d) CCFADM shall draw up directives on the phasing of the establishment of the FADM structures and shall propose to CSC:

– The rules governing the FADM;

– The budget to be provided for the FADM until the new Government takes office;

– The criteria for selection and the selection of FAM personnel and RENAMO forces for the formation of the FADM;

– The names of the commanding officers of the main commands.

2. FADM High Command

(a) The general mission of CS shall be to act on the directives issued by CCFADM, taking into account the establishment of the FADM structures and support for the FADM;

(b) Until the new Government takes office, the command of FADM shall be exercised by two general officers of equal rank, appointed by each of the Parties. Decisions of the command shall be valid only when signed by these two general officers;

(c) The FADM command structure shall be strictly non-political and shall receive directives and orders only through the appropriate chain of command;

(d) The FADM shall have a single logistics service for all three branches. To that end, a Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall be established under the authority of the FADM High Command;

(e) Appointments to the FADM High Command and the commands of the three branches of the FADM and the Logistics Command shall be proposed by CCFADM and approved by CSC;

(f) Until the new Government takes office, the FADM High Command shall be assisted by the General Staff, with departments headed by general officers or senior officers proposed by CCFADM and approved by CSC.

3. Command of the Army, Air Force and Navy and the Logistics Command:

The FADM High Command shall have authority over the Commands of the three service branches (Army, Air Force and Navy) and the Logistics Command, which shall be organized as follows:

(a) Army Command

1. The structure of the Army Command shall encompass the military regions under the direct authority of the Army Commander, whose functions are to be determined but which may include the organization and preparation of forces, training, justice, discipline and logistic support to assigned forces.

2. Each military region shall have a commanding officer holding the rank of general, who shall be assisted by a deputy commander.

3. The headquarters of the military regions shall be proposed by the Commander of the Army and approved by CS.

(b) Air Force Command

The Air Force shall be formed having regard to the training and skills of the personnel of the existing Air Force and the existing RENAMO forces, in accordance with the provisions of the directives issued by CCFADM.

(c) Navy Command

The Navy shall be formed having regard to the training and skills of the personnel of the existing Navy and the RENAMO forces, in accordance with the provisions of the directives issued by CCFADM.

(d) Logistics and Infrastructure Command

1. A Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall be set up under the direct authority of the FADM High Command.

2. The Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall have the overall mission of planning and providing administrative and logistic support for the FADM (Army, Air Force and Navy) and ensuring delivery of such support through the FADM General Services. It shall, in particular, be responsible for production and procurement logistics.

3. The Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall be headed by a general, assisted by a deputy commander and a general staff which shall, initially, include the following sections:

– Infrastructure;

– General services;

– Equipment;

– Finance.

4. The Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall have authority over such support units as may be assigned to it.

iv. Timetable for the process

(a) The formation of the FADM shall commence with the appointment of the following:

– CCFADM, prior to the entry into force of the cease-fire (E-Day);

– The FADM High Command on E-Day + 1;

– The commanders of the three service branches and the logistics command;

– The commanders of the military regions;

– The unit commanders.

(b) General staffs shall be organized immediately following the appointment of each command.

(c) The system of administrative and logistics support shall be organized taking into account the new size of the FADM, in accordance with the principle of utilizing or transforming existing structures on the basis of the plans of the FADM High Command, as approved by CCFADM.

v. Technical assistance of foreign countries

The parties shall inform the mediators within 7 (seven) days after the signing of the cease-fire protocol the countries which are to be invited to provide assistance in the process of forming the FADM.