PAM collects implementation data on 51 different types of provisions. Click to see accords that contain a particular provision or scroll down for a list of definitions.

Provision Definitions

  • Amnesty

    A legal guarantee that exempts former combatants, rebel leaders, and/or government officials from liability for criminal or political offences committed during the conflict.

    Click to see all Amnesty
  • Arms Embargo

    Commitment to abide by arms embargos established by the United Nations or a regional security organization, or agreement to limit or prohibit the sale or transfer of arms to particular groups either within or outside the state.

    Click to see all Arms Embargo
  • Cease Fire

    An agreement that is regulating the behavior of the warring parties without addressing the incompatibility. A ceasefire can be a part of a Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA) or the CPA may inherit a ceasefire agreed upon in a previous agreement. In very rare cases, an informal ceasefire exists and is not acknowledged in any agreement. Operationally, what we are measuring here is commitment by the government and rebels to the ceasefire agreement; commitment is implementation. 

    Click to see all Cease Fire
  • Children's Rights

    Children's rights include the right to education; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life. These rights are informed by four core principles: non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child.

    Click to see all Children's Rights
  • Citizenship Reform

    A provision for changing the process of acquiring permanent residency status or citizenship within the country, or the restoration of citizenship status that may have been revoked during the conflict. Governments often use citizenship to prevent certain individuals from being in the country or from running for elected office in the country, or to prevent the return of refugees whose lands are occupied. Citizenship provisions can be part of the reconciliation process and can influence the return of refugees to certain areas. 

    Click to see all Citizenship Reform
  • Civil Administration Reform

    Changes made to the civil administration of the country with regards to corruption, efficiency, availability, and representation of groups within the civil administration units. 

    Click to see all Civil Administration Reform
  • Constitutional Reform

    Constitutional changes involve re-writing, changing, or adding to an existing constitution, or creating a new constitution where there was none.

    Click to see all Constitutional Reform
  • Cultural Protections

    Guarantees of the rights of all people to participate in the culture of their choice. They are rights related to themes such as cultural and artistic production; participation in cultural life; cultural heritage; intellectual property rights; author's rights; minorities and access to culture, among others.

    Click to see all Cultural Protections
  • Decentralization/Federalism

    Decentralization / Federalism is a process of transferring governmental power over the collection and allocation of resources, governmental functions, and decision making away from a centralized authority and toward the actual area being governed, whether a region, state or local municipality.  

    Click to see all Decentralization/Federalism
  • Demobilization

    The formal and controlled discharge of active combatants from armed forces or other armed groups. The first stage of demobilization may extend from the processing of individual combatants in temporary centers to the massing of troops in camps designated for this purpose (cantonment sites, encampments, assembly areas or barracks). 

    Click to see all Demobilization
  • Disarmament

    The collection, documentation, control and disposal of small arms, ammunition, explosives and light and heavy weapons of combatants and often also of the civilian population. Disarmament also includes the development of responsible arms management programs.

    Click to see all Disarmament
  • Dispute Resolution Committee

    Dispute Resolution Committees are national, regional or local bodies set up to solve disagreements that arise during the implementation process.  The focus of these committees is the accord and implementing the accord.  

    Click to see all Dispute Resolution Committee
  • Donor Support

    Pledges for financial support from foreign states and/or international organizations in support of the implementation for the peace agreement.

    Click to see all Donor Support
  • Economic and Social Development

    Provisions that aim to improve the economic and social development of underserved populations and/or regions. Such changes include, but are not limited to, land reform and economic or social aid programs.

    Click to see all Economic and Social Development
  • Electoral/Political Party Reform

    Changes to the electoral system that affect opportunities for participation by individuals in the voting process and/or the ability of political parties to participate in elections.

    Click to see all Electoral/Political Party Reform
  • Human Rights

    Content that provides for the recognition and enforcement, through national laws or the constitution, of the universal, indivisible rights that are endowed to all persons simply by the sake of being human, as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

    Click to see all Human Rights
  • Independence Referendum

    An independence referendum allows an area of an existing state to have an election in which the inhabitants of the area in question decide to seek independence or stay part of the existing state. 

    Click to see all Independence Referendum
  • Indigenous Minority Rights

    The rights of indigenous peoples to their cultural property and identity, as well as the rights to education, employment, health, religion, language, and collective ownership of land.

    Click to see all Indigenous Minority Rights
  • Inter-ethnic/State Relations

    Councils which mediate the relationship between ethnic groups and/or between ethnic groups and the government. They may handle limited aspects of governance and/or provide recommendations to governmental bodies on legal and political policies. Such bodies usually include members from various societal and political groups.

    Click to see all Inter-ethnic/State Relations
  • Internally Displaced Persons

    Persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to leave their homes or habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of general violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border.

    Click to see all Internally Displaced Persons
  • International Arbitration

    A method of resolving a dispute in which the disputants present their case to an impartial third party, who then makes a decision for them which resolves the conflict.  This decision is usually binding.

    Click to see all International Arbitration
  • Judiciary Reform

    Reform which includes changes in the appointment or election process for judges, including representation of minority groups in the judiciary, assurances of judicial independence, and reform in the types of cases various courts can adjudicate.

    Click to see all Judiciary Reform
  • Legislative Branch Reform

    Reform in the relative representation of various groups, including women and national, ethnic, religious, or regional groups in the national legislature, and/or reform in the procedures and rules governing lawmaking.

    Click to see all Legislative Branch Reform
  • Media Reform

    Reforms which affect freedom of the press, including ownership, government censorship, and editorial freedom.

    Click to see all Media Reform
  • Military Reform

    Changes in the structure, leadership, or composition of the national armed forces. Such reforms may include the separation of the armed forces from the civilian government, representative recruiting and inclusion, and/or training based internally or involving external expertise.

    Click to see all Military Reform
  • Minority Rights

    The rights to which national, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities are entitled include the right to culture, religion and language; and participation in cultural, religious, social, economic and public life; participation in the decisions on national and regional level; and to establish and maintain contacts with their own group and other minorities within the state and outside of it.

    Click to see all Minority Rights
  • Natural Resource Management

    Provisions that deal with access to and utilization of natural resources, and/or agreements regarding the right to own, extract, and sell natural resources and the sharing of profits associated to such resources.

    Click to see all Natural Resource Management
  • Paramilitary Groups

    The post-conflict treatment of paramilitary groups, including militias and mercenaries, associated with combatants. It may include the integration of such groups into national armed forces and/or police, or the disarmament and dismantling of such groups.

    Click to see all Paramilitary Groups
  • Police Reform

    Changes in the structure, leadership, or composition of the national police. Such reform may include training regimes based internally or involving external expertise.

    Click to see all Police Reform
  • Powersharing Transitional Government

    Under powersharing arrangements, members of the opposition or the out-of-government party are guaranteed positions in the new government at the level of cabinet or above, or given posts in proportion to a specific quota in at least one of the main branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial). 

    Click to see all Powersharing Transitional Government
  • Prisoner Release

    The release of some or all political prisoners or those taken during the fighting, by one or more sides of the conflict.

    Click to see all Prisoner Release
  • Refugees

    Individuals who are outside their country of nationality or habitual residence, have a well-founded fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion, and are unable or unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution.

    Click to see all Refugees
  • Regional Peacekeeping Force

    An operation including military forces from neighboring states or a regional organization aimed at preserving the peace and assisting in implementing the peace agreement.

    Click to see all Regional Peacekeeping Force
  • Reintegration

    The process by which ex-combatants acquire civilian status which can include training and compensation packages. 

    Click to see all Reintegration
  • Reparations

    The provision of compensation, monetary or otherwise, to victims of human rights abuses during the conflict. Such compensation may be determined and dispensed by a truth and reconciliation commission, an independent committee, a governmental commission, or through non-governmental organizations.

    Click to see all Reparations
  • Review of Agreement

    The provision for an internal or external review after a specified period of time, or at specific intervals of time, after the peace agreement is signed. The party or parties may review implementation or provide a mechanism by which provisions of the agreement may be revised.

    Click to see all Review of Agreement
  • Territorial Powersharing

    Guarantees of positions and/or influence in local government to the rebel group or allows them to have local control over certain limited aspects of political and/or social life of the group they represent.

    Click to see all Territorial Powersharing
  • Truth or Reconciliation Mechanism

    A temporary body established and officially sanctioned to investigate and report on patterns of human rights abuses occurring over a period of time in a particular country or in relation to a particular conflict.

    Click to see all Truth or Reconciliation Mechanism
  • UN Peacekeeping Force

    Operations deployed as an interim measure to help preserve peace where fighting has been halted and to assist in implementing agreements achieved by the parties to a conflict. The operations are essentially military in character, and may involve: (a) observation, monitoring and reporting; (b) supervision of cease-fire and support to verification mechanisms; and/or (c) interposition as a buffer and confidence building measure.

    Click to see all UN Peacekeeping Force
  • UN Transitional Authority

    A transitional authority established by agreement of the parties in cooperation with the United Nations Security Council, or imposed by the UN SC, to assist a country during a government regime change or transition to independence.

    Click to see all UN Transitional Authority
  • Verification/Monitoring Mechanism

    The creation of an internal, UN based, or other international mission to verify the implementation of various provisions of the peace agreement, including but not limited to a cease fire, demobilization, and disarmament. This verification mission may be agreed upon by the parties or imposed by the UN or regional organization.

    Click to see all Verification/Monitoring Mechanism
  • Withdrawal of Troops

    Provision for the organized and peaceful pullout of international, national, or rebel military forces from contested areas or the conflict zone as a whole.

    Click to see all Withdrawal of Troops
  • Women's Rights

    The protection of women's political, civil, economic, social, and cultural rights, including but not limited to: political participation and leadership, equal access to employment and fair wages, freedom of expression, access to health care and education, economic participation, property ownership, family life, and culture.

    Click to see all Women's Rights