Withdrawal of Troops: Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement

Annexure I: Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities and Appendices (Signed at Naivasha, Kenya on 31st December 2004)

12. Foreign Insurgency Groups

12.1. The parties appreciate the threat and menace that the foreign insurgency groups pose on the security and stability of the Sudan and neighboring countries.

12.2. The parties have resolved to end the presence of the foreign insurgency groups on the Sudanese soil;

12.3. The parties shall work together to disarm, repatriate or expel these groups as soon as possible.

Implementation History


Minimum Implementation

The 2005 CPA provides that all parties should work together to disarm, repatriate or expel foreign insurgency groups from Sudan as soon as possible. The biggest concern for the SPLM/A was the involvement of Lords Resistance Army- a rebel group from Uganda. Immediately after signing of the accord, the SPLA leader and first vice-president Col. John Garang said that the LRA and its leader Joseph Kony had to leave South Sudan.1 As a matter of fact, on 14 January 2005, the SPLM gave a 72 hour (14 January) ultimatum to the LRA to leave southern Sudan territories.2 This ultimatum did not work. On 9 February 2005, the SPLA joined hands with the Ugandan army to hunt for LRA leader and his remaining cohorts in order to get rid of them if they did not negotiate peace with the Ugandan government.3 The First Vice-President gave the 27 July evening deadline for Joseph Kony and his LRA cohorts to leave the southern Sudan.4 The LRA posed major obstacles in peace processes in southern Sudan and efforts to expel them were not successful in 2005.

  • 1. "Sudan's Garang says Ugandan rebel leader must leave," BBC Monitoring Africa, January 11, 2005.
  • 2. "Ugandan Rebels Deadline to leave Sudan Ends on 14 January," BBC Monitoring Middle East, January 14, 2005.
  • 3. "Sudan, Uganda to Join Hands in Hunt for Rebel Leader: Official," Xinhua General News Service, February 9, 2005.
  • 4. "Sudan's Garang Says to "Deal Firmly" with Ugandan Rebels," BBC Monitoring Africa – Political, July 30, 2005.

Minimum Implementation

The LRA continued to pose a threat to peace processes in southern Sudan. Nevertheless, peace talks were held between the LRA negotiators and the Ugandan government in June of 2006. The Vice President, Riek Machar, paid Kony $20,000 and gave him stocks of food to ensure that the rebels would leave Sudan without plundering any more villages. The vice president believed that the LRA fighters left southern Sudan into the DRC.5 A peace talk was held in southern Sudan but the LRA rebels had yet to assemble in designated area.6 Nevertheless, the LRA rebels did not leave southern Sudan. The Sudan government was said to provide support to the LRA.

  • 5. "Sudan; SPLA Pays Kony to Leave Country," Africa News, June 26, 2006.
  • 6. "Rebels Want Restrictions on Ugandan Army in Southern Sudan," BBC Monitoring Africa, October 16, 2006.

Minimum Implementation

In June 2007, the LRA was given three weeks to assemble at the assembly point in southern Sudan by Riek Machar, the chief mediator of the talks between Uganda and the LRA, and the Vice President of southern Sudan.7 Nevertheless, it was not clear whether or not the LRA rebels were assembled or if they left the southern Sudan in 2007.

  • 7. "Ugandan Rebel Group Given Three More Weeks to Assemble in Southern Sudan," Xinhua General News Service, June 6, 2007.

Intermediate Implementation

As peace talks between the Ugandan government and the LRA started in 2006, the Uganda People's Defense Forces (UPDF) was permitted to come and stay in southern Sudan. The LRA started their immediate withdrawal of the UPDF, which never happened. In 2008 the LRA demanded the withdrawal again.8 By the end of 2008, the LRA gradually left southern Sudan and moved their forces to the Democratic Republic of the Congo's thick forests.9

  • 8. "Ugandan Rebels Demand Army Pull-Out from Southern Sudan," BBC Monitoring Africa, July 30, 2008.
  • 9. "Sudan Warns of Imminent LRA Attacks in Equatoria," Sudan Tribune, December 20, 2008.

Minimum Implementation

Despite efforts to purge the LRA from southern Sudan, some part of the LRA maintained its base in Southern Sudan.10 Nevertheless, the top LRA commander Okello Yape was killed by the Ugandan army in South Sudan.11 The LRA continued its base in Southern Sudan along with northeastern Congo, the Central African Republic.12


Minimum Implementation

Allegations of providing support to the LRA were denied by the Sudanese government.13 In March, the Sudanese president vowed to end LRA attacks in southern Sudan.14 As the elections drew near, the LRA attacks increased in Southern Sudan. Therefore, the government of southern Sudan intensified operations against the LRA.15 The LRA continued to operate from southern Sudan. 

  • 13. "Sudan's Ruling NCP Denies Harbouring Ugandan LRA Rebels," BBC Monitoring Middle East, January 21, 2010.
  • 14. "Sudan's Al Bashir Vows to End LRA Attacks in South," Sudan Tribune, March 3, 2010.
  • 15. "South Sudan Army Vows to Clear LRA Rebels," Sudan Tribune, June 27, 2010.

Minimum Implementation

A small part of LRA might still be based in South Sudan, but they are more present in Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo.16 The 2005 CPA provision on foreign insurgency groups was not implemented.   

  • 16. "Lords Resistance Army."