Verification/Monitoring Mechanism: Lomé Peace Agreement

ARTICLE II CEASEFIRE MONITORING

1. A Ceasefire Monitoring Committee (hereinafter termed the CMC) to be chaired by the United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (hereinafter termed UNOMSIL) with representatives of the Government of Sierra Leone, RUF, the Civil Defence Forces (hereinafter termed the CDF) and ECOMOG shall be established at provincial and district levels with immediate effect to monitor, verify and report all violations of the ceasefire.

2. A Joint Monitoring Commission (hereinafter termed the JMC) shall be established at the national level to be chaired by UNOMSIL with representatives of the Government of Sierra Leone, RUF, CDF, and ECOMOG. The JMC shall receive, investigate and take appropriate action on reports of violations of the ceasefire from the CMC. The parties agree to the definition of ceasefire violations as contained in Annex 2 which constitutes an integral part of the present Agreement.

3. The parties shall seek the assistance of the International Community in providing funds and other logistics to enable the JMC to carry out its mandate.

ARTICLE XIV NEW MANDATE OF UNOMSIL

1. The UN Security Council is requested to amend the mandate of UNOMSIL to enable it
to undertake the various provisions outlined in the present Agreement.

Implementation History

1999

Minimum Implementation

UN or international verification was in place prior to the 1999 Lomé Agreement. The Security Council Resolution of July 13, 1998 (S/RES/1181) had established the United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOSMIL). The 1999 Lomé Peace agreement had specific provisions for UN involvement, which led to the provisional extension of the mission. The mission was initially authorized to have 70 military observers, a 15-person medical unit and 5 civilian police advisers. There was also a provision for 50 international civilian personnel and 48 locally recruited staff. A maximum of 192 military observers, 15 other military personnel and a two person medical team, supported by international and local civilian staff, were deployed in October 1999. The Secretary General submitted additional recommendations on the overall activities of the UN in Sierra Leone after discussions with the parties, including discussion of the mandates and structure of UN peacekeeping in the area. On August 20, 1999, the Security Council passed a resolution (S/RES/1260) authorizing the provisional expansion of the observer mission.1

The Security Council passed a resolution on October 22, 1999 (S/RES/1270) authorizing the deployment of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), which expanded the observer and verification role of UNOMSIL to a peacekeeping role. Subsequently, the resolution terminated the observer mission. UNAMSIL had an authorized capacity, “with a maximum of 6,000 military personnel, including 260 military observers, to assist the Government and the parties in carrying out provisions of the Lomé peace agreement. At the same time, the Council decided to terminate UNOMSIL."2

As provided for in the Lomé Agreement, there was a new six-point mandate for ECOMOG operations in Sierra Leone, set forth by the Federal Government of Nigeria on July 8, 1999. The six points of the mandate are: reconstruction; disarmament; demobilization; integration of the citizenry; training of the Sierra Leonean Armed Forces; and a provision of security for VIPs in the post- war country.3

However, ECOMOG troops were withdrawn from Sierra Leone in September 1999.4 The first batch of 498 Nigerian troops was withdrawn on September 2, 1999.5

 The West African Peacekeeping Force (ECOMOG) in Sierra Leone stopped the withdrawal of troops following renewed tensions between the former military junta leader, Johnny Paul Koroma, and rebel leader, Foday Sankoh. “A senior ECOMOG official said in Freetown on Saturday that they suspended the pullout of Nigerian forces, the backbone of the peacekeepers, following an appeal by Sierra Leone's President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah and the United Nations. Some 2,000 Nigerian troops have already left the country."6

2000

Intermediate Implementation

UNMASIL was involved to verify the DDR process. The DDR process was disrupted due to the outbreak of violent conflict in May and June. Following the signing of a ceasefire agreement between conflicting parties on November 10, 2000, the DDR process restarted. “…[T]he Executive Secretariat of the National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, in cooperation with UNAMSIL and other key partners, has developed a draft revised joint operation plan for phase III of the programme, which was introduced to the Technical Coordination Committee of the Commission on 8 December [2001]."7

  • 7. "Secretary General’s Report on UNAMSIL," S/2000/1199, December 15, 2000, p. 5.
2001

Intermediate Implementation

UNMASIL was involved with the DDR verification. In keeping with the decision taken at the meeting of the joint committee on May 15, 2001, the DDR program was re-launched on May 18, 2001. In the meeting, the parties agreed to set up additional DDR camps, including UNAMSIL’s mobile disarmament unit. It was agreed that the RUF ex-combatants would be encamped for a period of up to four weeks, while CDF ex-combatants would stay for a shorter period. They would receive orientation briefings, as well as learn about opportunities available to them during the reintegration stage. The process was monitored by a mechanism that included CDF and RUF representatives.

During the May 15, 2001 meeting, the RUF declared that it had a total of 10,000 combatants. The CDF declared a total of 15,000 combatants, a number that could increase up to 20,000, as many are not listed as combatants.8

As of the December 9, 2001 report of the Secretary General on UNAMSIL, 36,741 combatants were demobilized and disarmed (12,087 RUF; 24,456 CDF and 196 AFRC/Ex-SLA).9 A total of 13,500 weapons and 2.8 million assorted pieces of ammunition were collected during the process. The demobilization and disarmament process completed in the Kambia, Port Loko, Kono, Bonthe, Bombali, Moyamba, Koinadugu, Tonkolili, Bo and Pujehun districts as well as in the western area. In the remaining two districts, Kailahun and Kenema, the process was expected to begin in the last phase of the DDR process. 

  • 8. "Secretary General’s Report on UNAMSIL," S/2001/627, June 25, 2001.
  • 9. "Secretary General’s Report on UNAMSIL," S/2001/1195, December 13, 2001.
2002

Full Implementation

A joint committee on DDR, comprised of the Government of Sierra Leone, the RUF and UNAMSIL, met on January 17, 2002 and declared the completion of demobilization and disarmament process. A total of 47,076 combatants (19,183 RUF, 27,695 CDF and 198 AFRC/ex-SLA) were demobilized and disarmed. The actual number could be slightly higher. The higher estimate is 47,781, with the RUF accounting for 19,267, the CDF for 28,051, and others for 463.10

As reported in Thusi and Meek (2003), 7,785 hand weapons, 17,180 assault weapons, 1,036 group weapons, and 935,495 ammunitions were collected. UNAMSIL had destroyed a total of 24,944 weapons as of the March 14, 2002 report of the Secretary General on UNAMSIL.11

Citing the NCDDA’s August report (August 2002), Thusi and Meek (2003) report that Sierra Leone disarmed and demobilized 72,490 combatants (24,352 RUF, 2,574 AFRC, 5,953 ex-SLA, 37,377 CDF, and 2,234 others, including paramilitaries). By phase, the disarmed and demobilized include 3,183 in the first phase, 18,898 in the second phase, 628 in the interim phase, and 47,781 in the third phase. Among the demobilized, 6,845 were children. In the process, 42,300 weapons and 1.2 million pieces of ammunition were collected and destroyed.12

The demobilization and disarmament process was completed in 2002. UNAMSIL verified the elections that were held in May 2002. 

  • 10. Thokozani Thusi and Sarah Meek, “Disarmament and Demobilization," 2003, In eds. Mark Malan, Sarah Meek, Thokozani Thusi, Jeremy Ginifer, Patrick Coker, "Sierra Leone: Building the Road to Recovery," Institute for Security Studies, Monograph 80, http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/monographs/No80/content.html, p. 28.
  • 11. "Secretary General’s Report on UNAMSIL," S/2002/267,  March 14, 2002.
  • 12. Thokozani Thusi and Sarah Meek, “Disarmament and Demobilization," 2003.
2003

Full Implementation

According to the Secretary General’s December 2003 Report on UNAMSIL, 56,751 ex-combatants registered for reintegration programs. Among those registered, “32,892 had completed their training and 15,322 were still in programmes. Of the other 8,537, the National Committed estimated the remaining caseload to be 4,500."13 With the near completion of the DDR process, the National Committee planned to dissolve it by March 2004.14

  • 13. Secretary General’s Report on UNAMSIL, S/2003/1201, December 23, 2003, p. 6.
  • 14. Ibid.
2004

Full Implementation

The demobilization and disarmament process was completed in 2002. UNAMSIL verified the elections that were held in May 2002.

According to the Secretary General’s July 2004 Report on UNAMSIL, a total of 54,000 ex-combatants have received reintegration benefits over the past four years.15 The Liberian and Sierra Leone governments, UNAMSIL, and UN mission in Liberia agreed, in principle, to demobilize, disarm and reintegrate ex-combatants from Sierra Leone in Liberia, who might number between 500 and 2,000.16

The number of ex-combatants to be reintegrated back to their communities that was cited by the Secretary General’s report is significantly lower than the progress report from World Bank on the Multi Donor Trust Fund. According to the World Bank report, “Of the 72,490 combatants who were disarmed, 95 percent or 69,000 were demobilized and 56,751 or 81 percent registered with NCDDR for reintegration training. As of mid-September of 2003, 48,240 or 85 percent of the registered ex-combatants had benefited from reintegration services."17

  • 15. "Secretary General's Report on UNAMSIL," S/2004/536, July 6, 2004.
  • 16. Ibid.
  • 17. "Community Reintegration and Rehabilitation," World Bank, Implementation Completion Report, Report No. 27263, 2003, p. 9.
2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

No further developments observed.