Verification/Monitoring Mechanism: Erdut Agreement

ERDUT AGREEMENT, ARTICLE 10:

Interested countries and organizations are requested to take appropriate steps to promote the accomplishment of the commitments in this agreement. After the expiration of the transition period and consistent with established practice, the international community shall monitor and report on respect for human rights in the region on a long-term basis.

Erdut Agreement, Article 11:

In addition, interested countries and organizations are requested to establish a commission, which will be authorized to monitor the implementation of this agreement, particularly its human rights and civil rights provisions, to investigate all allegations of violations of this agreement, and to make appropriate recommendations.

Erdut Agreement, Article 13:

The Government of the Republic of Croatia shall cooperate fully with the Transitional Administration and the international force. During the transitional period the Croatian Government authorizes the presence of international monitors along the international border of the region in order to facilitate free movement of persons across existing border crossings.

Implementation History

1995

No Implementation

The Erdut Agreement called for substantial verification of the implementation process by the UN. To provide such verification, the Transitional Administrator established a number of joint working committees to help oversee the implementation of particular areas of the accord. The Erdut Agreement emphases, in particular, the implementation of human rights reforms and civilian administration reforms. In establishing joint implementation committees, the UN Transitional Administrator appears to favor these areas as well. The verification mechanism was not established in 1995. 

1996

Full Implementation

A Joint Implementation Committee on Civilian Administration was established in 1996 and reached an agreement with the GoC on the centralized issuance of identity documents by Croatian officials to begin in August 1996 in three locales.1 Also in 1996, UNTAES commences human rights training with a seminar conducted by the newly established Joint Implementation Committee on Human Rights. The seminar took place near the area of Osijek, Croatia. The members of all the Joint Implementation Committees were invited.2 A Joint Implementation Committee on Refugee Returns is established and begins working on several pilot studies. In August of 1996, the UNHCR- chaired Joint Implementation Committee on Refugee Returns reports progress from their first pilot study on refugee returns.3 In October of 1996, it was reported by the UN Transitional Administration that Serb leaders were trying to block progress on the creation of some of the Joint Implementation Committees until there is more importance put on the “status and functions of the Serb community’s Joint Council of Municipalities."4

  • 1. "Report of the Secretary-General on UNTAES," United Nations (S/1996/622).
  • 2. Ibid.
  • 3. Ibid.
  • 4. "Report of the Secretary-General on UNTAES," United Nations (S/1996/821).
1997

Full Implementation

In June of 1997, UNTAES reports that a Joint Working Group on IDPs and Refugees was established and is working with the GoC to establish a Land Bank to help individuals purchase back housing that was illegally sold or destroyed.5 In Resolution 1120 (1997) the Security Council extended the mandate of UNTAES until 15 January 1998. UNTAES indicates in its report that the GoC is calling for the mandate of UNTAES to be terminated.6

  • 5. "Report of the Secretary-General on UNTAES," United Nations (S/1997/487), June 23, 1997.
  • 6. "Report of the Secretary-General on UNTAES," United Nations ( S/1997/767), October 2, 1997.
1998

Full Implementation

UNTAES formally ends its mandate in Croatia on 15 January 1998.7 The verification mandate was completed.

  • 7. "UNTAES: Brief Chronology."
1999

Full Implementation

The verification mandate was completed.

2000

Full Implementation

The verification mandate was completed.

2001

Full Implementation

The verification mandate was completed.

2002

Full Implementation

The verification mandate was completed.

2003

Full Implementation

The verification mandate was completed.

2004

Full Implementation

The verification mandate was completed.

2005

Full Implementation

The verification mandate was completed.