UN Peacekeeping Force: Lomé Peace Agreement
NOTE: Lomé Agreement does not specifically give mandate for the UN Peacekeeping, but the Ceasefire agreement of Nov. 10, 2000 gives UN a mandate to peacekeeping.
Cease-fire Agreement between the Sierra Leone Government and the RUF (Nov. 10, 2000).
3. They agree that the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone shall supervise and monitor the cease-fire. The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone shall also investigate and report on any acts of cease-fire violation.
4. Both parties agree that UNAMSIL shall have full liberty to deploy its troops and other personnel throughout Sierra Leone including the diamond producing areas in the discharge of its responsibilities.
The Security Council Resolution of July 13, 1998 (S/RES/1181) had established the United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOSMIL). The 1999 Lomé Peace agreement had specific provisions for UN involvement, which led to the provisional extension of the mission. The mission was initially authorized to have 70 military observers, a 15-person medical unit and 5 civilian police advisers. There was also a provision for 50 international civilian personnel and 48 locally recruited staff. A maximum of 192 military observers, 15 other military personnel and a two person medical team, supported by international and local civilian staff, were deployed in October 1999. The Secretary General submitted additional recommendations on the overall activities of the UN in Sierra Leone after discussions with the parties, including discussion of the mandates and structure of UN peacekeeping in the area. On August 20, 1999, the Security Council passed a resolution (S/RES/1260) authorizing the provisional expansion of the observer mission.1
The Security Council passed a resolution on October 22, 1999 (S/RES/1270) authorizing the deployment of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), which expanded the observer and verification role of UNOMSIL to a peacekeeping role. Subsequently, the resolution terminated the observer mission. UNAMSIL had an authorized capacity, “with a maximum of 6,000 military personnel, including 260 military observers, to assist the Government and the parties in carrying out provisions of the Lomé peace agreement. At the same time, the Council decided to terminate UNOMSIL."2
- 1. "United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone- UNOMSIL," http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unomsil/Unomsil.htm, accessed October 10, 2010.
- 2. "Sierra Leone-UNAMSIL-Background," http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unamsil/background.html, accessed October 10, 2010.
The strength of the UN peacekeeping force reached 7,391 military personnel, including 260 military observers, by March 1, 2000.3 As of the Secretary General’s December 2000 report on UNAMSIL, the security situation had remained relatively stable.4 In addition to the current deployment of UNAMSIL peacekeepers, the peacekeeping mission troops also concentrated on relief-in-place operations, while also establishing valuable contacts with RUF local commanders.
As of the Secretary General’s March 2001 report, “…UNAMSIL continued to remind RUF of its obligation under the Abuja agreement and discussed predominantly military issues with the rebel group. In particular, UNAMSIL pressed RUF to return the weapons seized from some UNAMSIL contingents in May 2000, to reopen the long-closed roads and to facilitate free movement of people and goods in REU-held areas."5
According to the Secretary General’s June 25, 2001 report on UNAMSIL, 246 military observers and 12,163 troops were deployed.6
As the elections approached, the UNAMSIL deployment covered a considerable part of Sierra Leone. By the September 7, 2001 Report of the Secretary General on UNAMSIL (S/2001/857), the UNAMSIL troop strength had increased to 16,664. The UNAMSIL military observers played important role in screening and processing the combatants as well as developing local disarmament arrangements with the faction commanders. As of the Secretary General’s report on UNAMSIL, the mission reached the authorized ceiling of 17,500 and the mission had been deployed in all districts of Sierra Leone.7
“By its resolution 1370 (2001) of 18 September 2001, the Security Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for a period of six months, ending on 30 March 2002” (S/2002/267, March 14, 2002, page 1). The mandate of the Mission was extended until 30 September 2002 by Security Council resolution S/RES/1400 on March 28, 2002). The peacekeeping mission’s mandate was extended through March 30, 2003 under Security Council Resolution S/RES/1436 on September 24, 2002.
According to Secretary General’s March 14, 2002 Report on UNAMSIL (S/2002/267), “[t]he Mission stepped up air and land patrols along the Sierra Leone/Liberia border in view of escalation of fighting in Liberia” (page 2). To ensure effective security for the post-conflict elections, UNAMSIL extended its deployment to an additional 39 locations. UNAMISL was committed to provide a secure environment for the elections and intended to deploy to additional areas during the polling period.8
The Mission played very important role in the elections. “UNAMSIL temporarily redeployed 11,000 troops to some 200 high-risk areas throughout the country, and assisted the Sierra Leone police in deploying 4,400 police personnel as well as mobile armed units to provide security for the elections. In addition, the Mission provided critical logistical support to the National Electoral Commission.”9 “At the end of the elections, UNAMSIL troops redeployed to their previous 39 locations and continued to mount robust patrols to deter any possible disturbances."10 The overall security situation in the post-election period remained relatively stable.
“In its resolution 1436 (2002) of 24 September 2002, the Security Council urged the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) to complete, within eight months, the first and second phases of the Mission’s drawdown plan” (S/2002/1417, December 24, 2002, page 1). The plan included reductions in troop strength from 17,500 to 13,000 by May 31, 2003.
Phase one of the drawdown plan saw the repatriation of 600 troops from the Nigerian and Bangladeshi contingents by November 8, 2002. This brought the Mission’s troop strength down from the authorized ceiling of 17,500 to 16,900 personnel (S/2002/1417, December 24, 2002).
According to Secretary General’s report on UNAMSIL, “The implementation of phase 2 started in December 2002 and was completed by 31 May 2003. Under this phase, a total of 3,826 troops, consisting of the Pakistani artillery unit, the Ghanaian sector 3 headquarters staff, the Kenyan sector 2 headquarters staff, the Bangladeshi logistics battalion, some elements of the Bangladesh signals battalion, a Nigerian battalion, the Guinean battalion, and the Ghanaian level 2 hospital, were withdrawn from the Mission. The Mission’s troop strength was thus reduced from 16,900 to the current level of 13,074 personnel."11
An accelerated drawdown plan would see all UNAMSIL troops leaving Sierra Leone by June 2004.
- 11. "Secretary General’s Report on UNAMSIL," S/2003/663, June 23, 2003, p. 7.
“In its resolution 1537 (2004) of 30 March 2004, the Security Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for an additional period of six months, until 30 September 2004. In the same resolution, the Council approved my recommendation that a residual UNAMSIL presence remain in Sierra Leone, for an initial period of six months from 1 January 2005, and requested me to proceed with the necessary planning to ensure a seamless transition from the current configuration of UNAMSIL to its residual presence” (S/2004/724, September 9, 2004, page 1).
The withdrawal plan was on track. “As planned, by the end of December, the strength of the Mission will be reduced to fewer than 5,000 troops, of which some 1,500 military personnel will be retained for up to two months to provide logistical support and a seamless transition to the Mission’s residual presence. By the end of February 2005, it is expected that the force strength will be 3,250 troops (including 66 staff officers) and 141 United Nations military observers.” (S/2004/724, September 9, 2004, page 3).
“By its resolution 1610 (2005) of 30 June 2005, the Security Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for a final period of six months, until 31 December 2005” (S/2005/777, December 12, 2005, page 1). As of December1, 2005, the Mission’s strength stood at 1,160 military personnel (S/2005/777, December 12, 2005). The mission completed its mandate on 31 December 2005.
The transition from the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) to the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL) was well planned and carried out without major obstacles.12
- 12. "Secretary General's Report on UNAMSIL," S/2006/269, April 28, 2006.
No further developments observed.
No further developments observed.
No further developments observed.