UN Peacekeeping Force: General Peace Agreement for Mozambique

Protocol V.III. Specific guarantees for the period from the ceasefire to the holding of the elections:

1. The Government of the Republic of Mozambique shall submit a formal request to the United Nations for its participation in monitoring and guaranteeing the implementation of the General Peace Agreement, in particular the cease-fire and the electoral process, with immediate priority to co-ordinating and making available food, medical attention and all other forms of support necessary at the assembly and billeting locations for the forces as provided in Protocol VI.

Implementation History

1992

Intermediate Implementation

The General Peace Agreement (GPA) for Mozambique had a provision for UN peacekeeping. As soon as the peace agreement was signed, and before the establishment of the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ), the interim Special Representative and a team of 21 military observers, drawn from existing United Nations peacekeeping missions, arrived in Mozambique on 15 October 1992.1

“On 16 December 1992, the Security Council, by its resolution 797 (1992), approved the Secretary-General's report and decided to establish ONUMOZ until 31 October 1993. The Council endorsed the Secretary-General's recommendation that the elections not take place until the military aspects of the General Peace Agreement had been fully implemented. It called upon the Mozambican Government and RENAMO to cooperate fully with the United Nations and to respect scrupulously the ceasefire and their obligations under the Agreement."2 The mandate of ONUMOZ included four important elements: political, military, electoral and humanitarian.

The formal request for a UN peacekeeping mission led to the Security Council’s approval of a substantial and multifunctional UN peacekeeping operation to be deployed and operational until the first general elections took place. However, ONUMOZ was slow to deploy. In the first few months, peace was only sustained due to the exhaustion of the warring parties and the general enthusiasm and support of the population for the peace agreement. Although operating behind schedule, ONUMOZ was largely successful in fulfilling its mission.

1993

Full Implementation

By the beginning of May 1993, ONUMOZ was fully deployed and its military infrastructure established in all three operational regions. It verified the violations of the ceasefire by both sides to the conflict as well as monitored the situations with strong military and police components. Its maximum military strength as of 30 November 1993 was 6,576 combatants from all ranks.3

1994

Full Implementation

ONUMOZ verification continued in 1994. As of 31 October 1994, it had a strong civilian police component consisting of 1,087 police observers stationed all over Mozambique to monitor the situation, especially issues related to human rights violations by the state police force. The UN verification mission was completed as soon as the post-conflict elections took place and election results were announced. The UN mission left Mozambique on December 1994.4 It had contributed to the demobilization, disarmament, integration, and reintegration of former combatants from both sides. It facilitated post-conflict elections and helped to avert the possible resumption of conflict when RENAMO was about to boycott the post-conflict elections.

1995

Full Implementation

The UN peacekeeping mission, ONUMOZ, was deployed in 1992 and completed its task by December 1994.

1996

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1997

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1998

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.