Paramilitary Groups: Framework for a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict

PARIS AGREEMENT

Annex 2. Withdrawal Ceasefire and Related Measures

Article I. Cease-fire

2: The Parties undertake that, upon the signing of this Agreement, they will observe a cease-fire and will order their armed force immediately to disengage and refrain from all hostilities and any deployment, movement or action that would extend the territory they control or that might lead to as resumption of fighting, pending the commencement of the second phase. Forces are agreed to include all regular, provincial, district, paramilitary and other auxiliary forces. During the first phase, the Secretary-General of the United Nations will provide his good offices to the Parties to assist them in its observance. The Parties undertake to cooperate with the Secretary-General or his representatives in the exercise of his good offices in this regard.

Implementation History

1991

No Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1992

No Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1993

No Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1994

No Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1995

No Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1996

No Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1997

Minimum Implementation

Hun Sen deposed Ranariddh with support from personal and state armed forces.

1998

Minimum Implementation

It was reported that the International Monetary Fund had condemned Cambodia's declining tax-collection efficiency and the reckless and illegal exploitation of forest resources by the rival parties. The state became increasingly impoverished and directionless, and the ordinary people increasingly demoralized. Tension in Phnom Penh mounted in early 1997, as private armies of bodyguards and paramilitary forces loyal to Ranariddh or Hun Sen confronted each other.1

  • 1. “Some Hope for Peace In Cambodia; Tony Kevin Explains The Recent History Of This Unhappy Country As It Prepares For The Election Planned For July,” Canberra Times (Australia), April 18, 1998.
1999

Minimum Implementation

At a donor conference in March 1999, the government of Cambodia stated that at the end of September 1999, the number of illegal weapons confiscated consisted of 16,412 rifles, 11 land mines, and 345 hand grenades. It was reported that people had voluntarily turned in 5,655 rifles, 190 hand grenades, and 332 land mines, and that the government had destroyed 20,112 rifles.2

More than 5,000 royalist fighters who had broken away from the Cambodian armed forces following a bloody 1997 coup officially rejoined the armed forces during a ceremony held on Friday, February 26, 1999. The troops had rebelled after their leader, Prince Norodom Ranariddh, was effectively ousted as co-prime minister by rival Cambodian leader Hun Sen. The ceremony marked the final integration of rebel forces into the army. Thousands of Khmer Rouge fighters were integrated into the army in the months following the collapse of the guerrilla movement, brought about by mass defections.3

Both of these incidents were considered as initiatives to deal with the militia or paramilitary forces. However, they were not considered as concrete steps taken beyond the scope of the military reform.

  • 2. “Cambodia: Army Officers Promoted as Part of Restructuring Programme,” BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific – Political, March 3, 1999.
  • 3. “Royalist resistance forces rejoin Cambodian army,” Deutsche Presse-Agentur, February 26, 1999.
2000

Minimum Implementation

Some significant steps were taken in 1999. There was no information on the existence of a paramilitary force.