Detailed Implementation Timeline: Lomé Peace Agreement

PART SIX IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AGREEMENT

ARTICLE XXXII JOINT IMPLEMENTATION COMMITTEE

A Joint Implementation Committee consisting of members of the Commission for the Consolidation of Peace (CCP) and the Committee of Seven on Sierra Leone, as well as the Moral Guarantors, provided for in Article XXXIV of the present Agreement and other international supporters shall be established. Under the chairmanship of ECOWAS, the Joint Implementation Committee shall be responsible for reviewing and assessing the state of implementation of the Agreement, and shall meet at least once every three months. Without prejudice to the functions of the Commission for the Consolidation of Peace as provided for in Article VI, the Joint Implementation Committee shall make recommendations deemed necessary to ensure effective implementation of the present Agreement according to the Schedule of Implementation, which appears as Annex 5.

ANNEX 5

DRAFT SCHEDULE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT

1. ACTIVITIES WITH SPECIFIC TIMING:

Day 1

Signing of the Peace Agreement

Amnesty

Transformation and new mandate of ECOMOG

The Government to grant absolute and free pardon to the RUF leader Foday Sankoh through appropriate legal steps

Request to ECOWAS by the parties for revision of the mandate of ECOMOG in Sierra Leone

Request to the UN Security Council to amend the mandate of UNOMSIL to enable it to undertake the various provisions outlined in the present Agreement;

Request to the international community to provide substantial financial and logistical assistance to facilitate implementation of the Peace Agreement.

Request to ECOWAS by the parties for contributions of additional troops.

Transformation of the RUF into a political party.

RUF to commence to organize itself to function as a political party.

Encampment, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR).

Request for international assistance in adapting and extending the existing DDR programme.

Withdrawal of mercenaries

Supervision by Joint Monitoring Commission

Notification to Joint Monitoring Commission Communication by the parties of positions and description of all known warlike devices/materials

Notification to Military Commands

Communication by the parties of written orders requiring compliance

DAY 15

Enabling members of the RUF to hold public office, and to join a broad-based Government of National Unity through Cabinet appointments

Removal by the Government of all legal impediments

Commission for the Consolidation of Peace (CCP)

Creation of the Commission to implement a post-conflict reconciliation and welfare programme

Mandate of the Commission to terminate at the end of next general elections Jan–Feb 2001

Commission for the Management of Strategic Resources, National Reconstruction and Development (CMRRD)

Ban on all exploitation, sale, export, or any transaction of gold and diamonds except those sanctioned by the CMRDD

DAY 22

Enabling members of the RUF to hold public office

Discussion and agreement between both parties on the appointment of RUF members to
positions of parastatal, diplomacy and any other public sector for a period of fourteen days

DAY 31

Transformation of the RUF into a political party

Commission for the management of Strategic Resources, National Reconstruction and Development (CMRRD)

Transformation, new mandate, and phased withdrawal of ECOMOG
Necessary legal steps by the Government for the registration of the RUF as a political party

Preparation and submission by Government to the Parliament of relevant bills for enabling legislation commitments made under the peace agreement

Deployment of troops from at least two additional countries

DAY 60

Completion of encampment, disarmament and demobilization

Restriction of SLA soldiers to the barracks and storage of their arms and ammunition under constant surveillance by the Neutral Peace-Keeping Force during the disarmament process

Monitoring of disarmament and demobilization by UNOMSIL

DAY 90

Human Rights Commission

Creation of an autonomous quasi judicial national Human Rights Commission

Request for technical and material assistance from the UN High Commissioner for

Human Rights, the African Commission on Human Rights and Peoples Rights and other relevant organizations

Creation of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Elections

Establishment of a new independent National Electoral Commission (NEC) in consultation with all political parties including the RUF

Request for financial and logistical support for the operations of the NEC

Request for assistance from the international community in monitoring the next presidential and parliamentary elections in Sierra Leone

DAY 456

Human Rights Violations

Submission by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of its report and recommendation to the Government for immediate implementation

II. ACTIVITIES WITHOUT SPECIFIC TIMING: (SHORT/MEDIUM/LONG TERM):

1. Ceasefire monitoring

(Ceasefire Agreement signed on 18 May 1999)

Establishment of a Ceasefire Monitoring Committee at provincial and district levels

Request for international assistance in providing funds and other logistics for the operations of the JMC

JMC already established and operational

2. Review of the present Constitution

Establishment of a Constitutional Review Committee

3. Mediation by the Council of Elders and Religious Leaders

Appointment of members of the Council by the Interreligious Council, the Government, the RUF and ECOWAS

4. Timetable for the phased withdrawal of ECOMOG

Formulation of the timetable in connection with the phased creation and eployment of the restructured Armed Forces

5. Security guarantees for peace monitors Communication, in writing, of security guarantees to UN military observers 

6. Restructuring and training of the SLA

Creation by the Government of truly national armed forces reflecting the geo-political structure of Sierra Leone within the established strength.

Implementation History

1999

Full Implementation

The major elements of the timeline are Amnesty, allowing RUF to become a political party, DDR, and the Truth Commission. Although the accord does not distinguish between start dates and completion dates, which suggest that the dates given are start dates. Amnesty and party reform were passed almost immediately. The DDR program was initiated before the accord. The Truth Commission was initiated within one year. By and large, the deadlines were met.

Amnesty was passed very quickly. Immediately after signing the Lomé Agreement, President Ahmad Kabbah addressed the House of Parliament on the signing of the Lomé peace deal, which included amnesty provisions. He granted a blanket amnesty to rebels, as well as the release of more than 65 political prisoners, including RUF leader Foday Sankoh. “The prisoners were among a group of civilians and military officers held in detention for their role in the ousted military junta which rule the country in 1997... The President told Parliamentarians that such a move in granting amnesty to the political prisoners was a difficult one but that in the interest of peace it was worth making."1 

On July 23, 1999, Parliament passed the Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone (Participation in Political and Democratic Process) Act, 1999 (No. 4 of 1999). The Act facilitated the transformation of the Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone into a political movement and the assumption by members of the Front of any public offices assigned to them pursuant to the Lomé Peace Agreement. On the same day, Parliament also passed the Commission for the Management of Strategic Resources, National Reconstruction and development Act, 1999 (No. 5 of 1999), as provided for under Article XXVIII of the Lomé Peace Agreement.2 This Act allowed the RUF to participate in the transitional government.

The DDR process started in October 1998 and was run by UNASMIL in coordination with NCDDR. The process was comprised of four different phases: (1) Phase I- September – December 1998; (2) Phase II- October 1999-April 2000; (3) Interim Phase - May 2000-May 17, 2001; (4) Phase III- May 18, 2001-January 2002.3 

According to the eighth report of the Secretary General on UNOMSIL (S/1999/1003, September 28, 1999), “the Government of Sierra Leone, working in close cooperation with the World Bank, the United Kingdom and UNOMSIL, developed an operational plan for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration into society of an estimated 45,000 fighters in Sierra Leone."4 “The strength of the RUF is estimated at some 15,000, approximately the same size as the Civil Defence Force. The AFRC comprises some 6,000 men, slightly fewer than the current armed forces of Sierra Leone, which have a nominal roll of 7,000. Some 2,000 fighters are thought to belong to various paramilitary groups. UNICEF estimates that about 12 per cent of all combatants are children."5

  • 1. "Sierra Leone; President Orders Release Of Political Prisoners," Africa News, July 9, 1999.
  • 2. "Laws of Sierra Leone," http://www.sierra-leone.org/laws.html, accessed October 14, 2010.
  • 3. Thokozani Thusi and Sarah Meek, “Disarmament and Demobilization," 2003, In eds. Mark Malan, Sarah Meek, Thokozani Thusi, Jeremy Ginifer, Patrick Coker, "Sierra Leone: Building the Road to Recovery," Institute for Security Studies, Monograph 80, http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/monographs/No80/content.html, pp. 24-25.
  • 4. "Eighth Report of the Secretary General on UNOMSIL," S/1999/1003, September 28, 1999, p. 6.
  • 5. S/1999/1003, September 28, 1999, p. 7.
2000

Full Implementation

The Parliament of Sierra Leone approved the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Act 2000 on February 10, 2000. The Act provided an institutional means of establishing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in line with Article XXVI of the Lomé Peace Agreement.6

  • 6. Paul James-Allen, Sheku B. S. Lahai, and Jamie O’Connel, 2003, "Sierra Leone’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Special Court: A Citizen’s Handbook," National Forum for Human Rights and International Centre for Transitional Justice, New York, http://www.ictj.org/images/content/0/9/094.pdf, Accessed October 25, 2010.
2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

No further developments observed.