Verification/Monitoring Mechanism: Accra Peace Agreement

ANNEX 1: We the Parties to this Agreement... Hereby agree as follows:

3. Joint Verification Team (JVT). To establish an ECOWAS-led JVT comprised of two representatives from each of the parties plus representatives of the UN AU and ICGL.

4. Locations. Each party shall identify the locations of its units including combat equipment, and communicate this information to the JVT in writing within 72 hours of the signature of this agreement. The JVT will visit the locations to verify the information provided and plot unit locations on a map. This document shall be signed by all the parties and will be the reference document on the limits of their locations.

6. Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC). To Establish a JMC to supervise and monitor the ceasefire. The JMC will be chaired by a representative of ECOWAS and include equal representation from the Parties, as well as representatives of the UN, AU and ICGL. The JMC will report daily to ECOWAS Headquarters and will investigate reports of ceasefire violations by the parties.

7. International Stabilization Force (ISF) The Parties agree on the need for the creation and deployment of an international stabilization force and commit themselves to cooperation with it. They shall accord complete freedom of movement to the ISF at all times in the execution of their duties.

9. Ceasefire Violations. Violations of a ceasefire shall include the following:

(f) Obstruction of the activities of the JVT, JMC, ISF and Humanitarian Agencies as described in paragraphs 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 above;

ARTICLE IV: INTERNATIONAL STABILISATION FORCE

1. The GOL, the LURD, the MODEL and the Political Parties agree on the need for the deployment of an International Stabilization Force (ISF) in Liberia. Accordingly, the Parties hereby request the United Nations in collaboration with ECOWAS, the AU and the ICGL to facilitate, constitute, and deploy a United Nations Chapter VII force in the Republic of Liberia to support the transitional government and to assist in the implementation of this Agreement.

2. The ECOWAS Interposition Force is expected to become a part of the International Stabilisation Force.

3. The Parties request the ISF to assume the following mandate:

(a) Observe and monitor the ceasefire;

(b) Investigate violations of the security aspects of this Agreement and take necessary measures to ensure compliance;

(c) Monitor disengagement and cantonment of forces of the Parties and provide security at disarmament/cantonment sites;

(d) Collect weapons at disarmament sites and elsewhere and ensure that the weapons so collected are properly accounted for and adequately secured;

(e) Assist in the coordination and delivery of humanitarian assistance to displaced persons, refugees, returnees and other war-affected persons;

(f) Facilitate the provision and maintenance of humanitarian assistance and protect displaced persons, refugees, returnees and other affected persons;

(g) Verify all information, data, and activities relating to the military forces of the Parties;

(h) Along with ECOWAS and the International Contact Group on Liberia, provide advice and support to the Transitional Government provided for in this Agreement on the formation of a new and restructured Liberian Army;

(i) Assist with security for elections;

(j) Take the necessary means whenever the need arises and as it deems within its capabilities, to protect civilians, senior political and military leaders under imminent threat of physical violence;

(k) Coordinate with ECOWAS in the implementation of this Agreement.

4. The Parties expect that units of the ISF shall be selected from countries acceptable to all the Parties to the Ceasefire Agreement.

5. The Parties to this Agreement call on the ISF to remain in place until otherwise determined by the UN Security Council and the elected Government of Liberia.

ARTICLE III: CEASEFIRE MONITORING

3. The Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) established under the terms of the Ceasefire Agreement, and composed of representatives of ECOWAS, the UN, AU, ICGL and Parties to the Ceasefire Agreement shall continue to supervise and monitor the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement.

4. Prior to the deployment of the International Stabilisation Force, a representative of ECOWAS shall chair the JMC.

5. The JMC shall:

(a) Resolve disputes concerning implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement, including the investigation of any alleged violation and also recommend remedial action for confirmed ceasefire violations.

(b) Submit for approval, its recommendations to the Implementation Monitoring Committee (IMC) referred to under Article XXVIII(2) and (3) in this Agreement which is seized with the responsibility of monitoring the implementation of this Peace Agreement.

6. The Parties shall provide the JMC with any relevant information on the organisation, equipment and locations of their forces, and such information will be kept confidential.

ARTICLE XXIX: INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE

1. In view of the recent appointment of the UN Secretary-General's Special Representative in Liberia, the Parties call for the urgent establishment of a consolidated United Nations Mission in Liberia that will have the resources to facilitate the implementation and coordination of the Political, Social, Economic and Security assistance to be extended under this agreement.

2. The Parties also call on ECOWAS, in collaboration with the UN, AU, EU and ICGL, to set up a monitoring mechanism in the form of an Implementation Monitoring Committee (IMC) in Monrovia that will ensure effective and faithful implementation of the Peace Agreement by all the Parties.

3. The Parties agree on the need for regular joint meetings between this Implementation Monitoring Committee and representatives of the NTGL, in order to assess implementation of the provisions of this Agreement and agree on recommendations for enhanced implementation.

Implementation History

2003

Intermediate Implementation

The main mechanisms for the implementation of the peace agreement, including the Implementation Monitoring Committee (IMC), were all in place by October 2003. On 27 November 2003, three armed groups reportedly renewed their demand for more senior government posts. To deal with the situation, the IMC held its first meeting on 28 November, which was chaired jointly by the UNMIL and ECOWAS, and comprised of representatives from the African Union, the European Union and the International Contact Group. In the meeting, the committee condemned the armed groups’ attempt to make government positions a precondition for their participation in the DDRR program. The meeting also recommended taking appropriate measures against parties that continued to violate the Cease Fire agreement.1

  • 1. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2003/1175), December 15, 2003.
2004

Full Implementation

In a joint press statement made in October 2004, the IMC issued a warning that the international community would not allow any disruption of the work of the NTGL.2

Following the completion of the disarmament, demobilization, and disbandment of the armed factions, the task of the IMC and Joint Monitoring Committee was completed.3

  • 2. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2004/972), December 17, 2004.
  • 3. Ibid.
2005

Full Implementation

When the Liberian Supreme Court ruled that voters should be allowed to cast two votes for the two senatorial seats in each county, “the IMC asked and the International Contact Group on Liberia requested the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) mediator, General Abdulsalami Abubakar, to intervene to find a solution which would respect the rule of law while preserving the integrity of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.” The mandate of the Supreme Court was implemented by reeducating the voters.4

  • 4. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2005/674), December 7, 2005.
2006

Full Implementation

Most of the IMC and JMC goals were achieved when post-conflict elections were successfully held in October 2005.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2012

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.