Verification/Monitoring Mechanism: Abuja Peace Agreement

CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN GUINEA-BISSAU

Article 1

(d) Deployment of observation and interposition forces, to be defined through negotiations;

2. To the total withdrawal from Guinea-Bissau of all foreign troops. This withdrawal shall be done simultaneously with the deployment of an ECOWAS Military Observer Group interposition force, which will take over from the withdrawn forces.

ABUJA PEACE AGREEMENT

Appendix One

2. To engage in the withdrawal of the respective military forces from the Mansoa area, as soon as the interposition or observation force is deployed in the said area. This military interposition or observation force shall secure and guarantee the demilitarization of Mansoa area until a final solution is reached through the negotiation process, also established in the said Memorandum of Understanding.

Implementation History

1998

No Implementation

The ceasefire agreement, which was reaffirmed in the final Abuja Peace Accord, provided for the deployment of military interposition or observation forces. The provision for UN involvement was negotiated in an additional protocol to the Abuja Accord of 1 November 1998. According to the additional protocol, the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) mission would be sent to the United Nations. As stipulated in the additional protocol, the mission met with the Secretary-General and the Security Council on 11 December 1998, where the United Nations was asked for their assistance in working towards the return of peace and stability in Guinea-Bissau. As a consequence, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1216 (1998) on 21 December 1998, which approved the deployment of interposition forces from the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) and asked for periodic reports from ECOMOG through the Secretary-General.1 As such, the initiatives taken by the ECOWAS countries on deploying ECOMOG forces was endorsed by the United Nations Security Council, and the Security Council asked the Secretary-General to propose a possible role for the United Nations, including the establishment of a liaison between ECOMOG and the UN.2

While the UN was very much involved in the peace process, there were no UN observers deployed to verify the implementation of accords in Guinea-Bissau by the end of 1998.

  • 1. “Resolution 1216 (1998),” U.N. Security Council (S/RES/1216 (1998)), December 21, 1998.
  • 2. “Guinea-Bissau; UN Endorses ECOWAS Plan For Guinea-Bissau,” Africa News, December 22, 1998.
1999

Full Implementation

The United Nations Security Council, through its Resolution on 6 April 1999 (S/RES/1233), established a Post-Conflict Peace Building Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS) under the leadership of a Representative of the Secretary-General.3 As well as working closely with ECOMOG, ECOWAS, and national and international stakeholders, UNOGBIS was meant to play a harmonizing and integrative role in the transitional period to ensure the implementation of the accord and that the post-conflict general elections were held. Before the establishment of UNOGBIS, a mission from the United Nations Department of Political Affairs visited Guinea-Bissau on 11 March 1999 to assess the ground realities and determine the logistical and other requirements for the new UN office.4 The mission was finally deployed on 25 June 1999.5

In a military coup that took place on 7 May 1999, President Joao Bernardo Vieira was removed from his office. This political development made the ECOMOG operation obsolete as the Guinea-Bissau armed forces took over the security role. This development required the United Nations to adjust some of the mandates of its mission in Guinea-Bissau, but it remained focused on the holding of elections.6 The multiparty elections for the legislature and president took place on 28 November 1999.7

  • 3. “Resolution 1233 (1999),” U.N. Security Council (S/RES/1233 (1999)), April 6, 1999.
  • 4. “Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1216 (1998) Relative to the Situation in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/294), March 17, 1999.
  • 5. “UNIOGBIS - United Nations Integrated Peace-Building Office in Guinea-Bissau - Guinea-Bissau at a Glance,” United Nations, accessed January 9, 2013, http://uniogbis.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=9876&ctl=Details&mid=1....
  • 6. “Report pursuant to Security Council resolution 1233 (1999) relative to the situation in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/741), July 1, 1999.
  • 7. “Developments in Guinea-Bissau and activities of the United Nations Peacebuilding Support in that country,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/1276), December 23, 1999.
2000

Full Implementation

While the observer functions related to the implementation of the Abuja Accord concluded with the holding of elections in November of 1999, UNOGBIS continued its presence in Guinea-Bissau to monitor political developments and help build democratic institutions.8

  • 8. “Developments in Guinea-Bissau and activities of the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in that country,” U.N. Security Council (S/2000/920), September 29, 2000.
2001

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2002

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2003

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2004

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2005

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2006

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed in 2007. 

In 2009, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1876 on 26 June 2009, which replaced UNOGBIS with the UN Integrated Peace-building Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS).9

  • 9. “Report of the Secretary-General on developments in Guinea-Bissau and on the activities of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Support Office in that country,” U.N. Security Council (S/2010/550), October 25, 2010.