UN Peacekeeping Force: Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi
Protocol III, Chapter III: Article 27:
5. International peacekeeping force
The mandate of the peacekeeping force referred to in article 8 of Protocol V to the Agreement shall be to verify implementation of the provisions contained in this Chapter. In addition to its verification function, the force may be requested by the Ceasefire Commission to provide assistance and support to the implementation process, as appropriate.
Protocol V: Chapter I: Article 8: Peacekeeping
Immediately following the signature of the Agreement, the Burundian Government shall submit to the United Nations a request for an international peacekeeping force in conformity with and for the purposes set forth in article 27, paragraph 5 of Protocol III to the Agreement. Account must be taken of United Nations practice in this respect. This force shall be responsible inter alia for:
(a) Ensuring respect for the ceasefire;
(b) Supervising integration;
(c) Providing technical support for demobilization aid and training;
(d) Ensuring protection of the institutions and of any public figure who so wishes;
(e) Assisting in the establishment and training of an ethnically balanced special unit for the protection of the institutions.
Pretoria Protocol II (2 November 2003)
2.2. 2.2 Roles and Principles
a.7. To participate in peace support operations under the auspices of the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU) or the Regional Organisations when the Government is ready to participate.
The international peacekeeping mission was not deployed in 2003. In fact, the Arusha requires the establishment of the regional peacekeeping mission by the African Union and create condition for the deployment of the UN peacekeeping in Burundi.
In February 2003, an assessment mission evaluated the security situation and overall peace process in Burundi and based on its evaluation, the UN Secretary General proposed the establishment of the United Nations Mission in Burundi (MINUB). On 21 May 2004, the Security Council adopted recommendations of the Secretary General by adopting a resolution 1545 (2004). In its resolution, the Security Council established the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONBU) and authorized 5,650 military personnel, 200 military observers, 125 headquarters and staff officers. And as of 1 June 2004, the African Mission in Burundi troops from Ethiopia, Mozambique and South Africa, and 29 military observers from Burkina Faso, Gabon, Mali, Togo and Tunisia became ONBU troops. As of November 2004, there were 5,259 ONBU troops deployed in Burundi.1
The mission was authorized for six months, which was extended until 1 June 2005 by Security Council from its resolution 1577 (2004) on 1 December 2004.
- 1. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2004/902), November 15, 2004; "Burundi; UN Mission Replaces Sections of South African Peacekeepers," Africa News, October 25, 2004.
The ONBU continued its mission in Burundi in 2005. Security Council resolution 1602 (2005) of 31 May 2005 extended the mandate of ONBU for additional six months until 1 December 2005. Again on November the ONBU was extended until 15 January 2005 (SEC/RES/ 1641 (2005) on 30 November 2005. The ONBU mandate was extended until 1 July 2006 (SEC/RES/1650 (2005) on 21 December 2005.
The ONBU continued its mission in Burundi in 2006. The ONBU mandate was extended until 31 December 2006 (S/RES/1692 (2006) on 30 June 2006. The UN Security Council on 25 October 2006 adopted a resolution S/RES/1719 (2006) authorized the establishment of the United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi (BINBU) and the withdrawal of ONBU. The BINBU was set to be operation on 1 January 2007. By the time of its drawdown, the ONBU had 1,522 troops (including 77 military observers and 51 staff.2 The ONBU completed its mandate specified in the Arusha accord.
- 2. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2006/994), December 18, 2006.
The peacekeeping role of the ONBU was completed in 2006. However, the UN Security council established the BINBU to support the consolidation of peace and democratic governance, to protect and promote human rights and coordinate between donor and the UN agencies. The mandate of the BINBU was extended until the end of December 2010.
No developments observed this year.
No developments observed this year.
The UN Security Council adopted a resolution S/RES/1959 (2010) on 16 December 2010 and replaced the BINBU by establishing the UN Office in Burundi (BNUB) for a year starting 1 January 2011.
The UN Office Burundi (BNUB) began January 1, 2011. The mission was extended until 15 February 2013 on 20 December 2011 (S/RES/2027/2011).
No further developments observed.