Territorial Powersharing: General Peace Agreement for Mozambique

Protocol V. III. Specific guarantees for the period from the cease-fire to the holding of the elections:

9. Guarantee of legality, stability and tranquillity throughout the territory of the Republic of Mozambique.

(a) The Parties recognize that the public administration in the Republic of Mozambique during the period between the entry into force of the ceasefire and the time when the new Government takes office will continue to obey the law in force and to be conducted through the institutions provided for by law;

(b) The public administration shall guarantee public tranquillity and stability, and seek to ensure the maintenance of peace and the creation of the climate required for the holding of fair and free general and presidential elections in accordance with the provisions of the General Peace Agreement and the Electoral Act;

(c) The two Parties undertake to guarantee that the laws and legislative provisions of the Republic of Mozambique, as well as the civil and political rights of citizens and human rights and fundamental freedoms, shall be respected and guaranteed in all parts of the national territory in conformity with Protocol I of 18 October 1991;

(d) In order to ensure greater tranquillity and stability in the period between the entry into force of the ceasefire and the time when the new Government takes office, the Parties agree that the institutions provided for by law for the conduct of the public administration in the areas controlled by Renamo shall employ only citizens resident in those areas, who may be members of Renamo. The State shall accord such citizens and the institutions staffed by them the respect, treatment and support required for the discharge of their duties, on the basis of strict equality and without any discrimination in relation to others performing similar functions and institutions at the same level in other areas of the country.

The relationship between the Ministry of State Administration and the administration in the areas controlled by Renamo shall be conducted through a National Commission constituted by the Parties for the purpose of facilitating collaboration and good understanding. This Commission shall be composed of four representatives of each of the Parties and shall begin operating 15 days after the signature of the General Peace Agreement;

(e) The Government undertakes to respect and not antagonize the traditional structures and authorities where they are currently de facto exercising such authority, and to allow them to be replaced only in those cases where that is called for by the procedures of local tradition themselves;

(f) The Government undertakes not to hold local, district or provincial elections or elections to administrative posts in advance of the forthcoming general elections;

(g) The Parties undertake to guarantee throughout the national territory the exercise of democratic rights and freedoms by all citizens, as well as the performance of party work by all political parties;

(h) The Parties guarantee access by the Commissions provided for in the General Peace Agreement, the representatives and officials of the State institutions provided for by law and their officials to any part of the national territory to which they may need to proceed on official business, as well as the right to freedom of movement in all locations not restricted by any legislative measure, instrument or rule.

Implementation History

1992

Full Implementation

As stipulated in the General Peace Agreement, RENAMO (or its armed wing, the Mozambique National Resistance (MNR)) continued to hold control of territory. RENAMO controlled approximately twenty-five percent of Mozambican territory, scattered all over the country, at the end of the war in 1992 and about six percent of the population. The largest concentrations of RENAMO-controlled territory were in the central part of the country, specifically in Manica, Sofala, and Zambézia provinces.1 However, territorial administration by RENAMO was meant to be temporary until the holding of post-conflict elections. As such, RENAMO continued to hold its control over areas as territorial powersharing for a temporary period.

  • 1. Dorina A. Bekoe, “Mutual Vulnerability and the Implementation of Peace Agreements: Examples from Mozambique, Angola, and Liberia,” International Journal of Peace Studies 10, no. 2 (2005): 51.
1993

Full Implementation

Territory under RENAMO control was administered by RENAMO members. On 15 March 1993, the Mozambique National Resistance (MNR) announced in a communique issued in Maputo that it would not participate in any of the peace agreement committees until the government resolved all the administrative problems of the MNR in Maputo, challenging recent statements about government expenditure on the MNR administration in Maputo made by the Minister of Construction and Water Joao Salomao.2

A presidential decree was issued on 14 July 1993 that created a national commission aimed at facilitating cooperation and fostering understanding between the State Administration Ministry and the administration in areas controlled by the Mozambique National Resistance [MNR - RENAMO]. Meanwhile, RENAMO had issued a communique saying the state administration in RENAMO-controlled areas would only begin once the commission begins to operate. In its communique, RENAMO once again pointed out that the General Peace Accord signed in Rome referred to the existence of two administrations in Mozambique.3

  • 2. “Mozambique: MNR Stops Participation in Peace Committees until Problems Resolved,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts/The Monitoring Report, March 16, 1993.
  • 3. “Mozambique: Radio Says Issue of 'Double Administration' Needs To Be Clarified,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 16, 1993.
1994

Full Implementation

As of 1994, most of the country was under government control, but RENAMO was restricting access to its strongholds in central Mozambique. After elections, the administrative control of RENAMO ended.4

  • 4. “Ballots, Not Bullets: Mozambique Goes to the Polls This Week but the Question is What Happens Next,” The Gazette (Montreal, Quebec), October 23, 1994.
1995

Full Implementation

RENAMO's territorial powersharing ended after the elections as planned and a unified administration was established.

No further develoments.

1996

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1997

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1998

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.