Territorial Powersharing: General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina

GENERAL FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT

Article X

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina recognize each other as sovereign independent States within their international borders. Further aspects of their mutual recognition will be subject to subsequent discussions.

Implementation History

1995

Intermediate Implementation

In 1995, most of the institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina were not set up. Nevertheless, the Federation and the Republika Srpska were recognized as separate entities and enjoyed powers and responsibilities as a federal entity. Yet, the difference is that while RS is a very centralized entity in the Federation BiH, most responsibilities such as taxation, education, police force, etc. have been placed on the level of cantons comprising the federation. Cantons, five Bosniak, three Croat, and two mixed cantons were created as a result of the Washington Agreement in January 1994. The Washington agreement was baked in and is thus essential part of the Dayton Peace Agreement.

1996

Intermediate Implementation

Once the post-conflict elections took place on 14 September 1996, it can be said that the institutional set up of confederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina was completed. Institutions were set up at the federal, entities, and canton levels. 

1997

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

1998

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.