Reintegration: Lusaka Protocol

ANNEX 4: AGENDA ITEM II.1 (continued): MILITARY ISSUES (II)

4. Completion of the formation of the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA), including demobilization.

I. General Principles

3. The military personnel in excess of the number to be agreed between the Angolan Government and UNITA for the composition of FAA will be demobilized and integrated into civilian society, within the framework of a national social reintegration program to be undertaken by the Government of the Republic of Angola with the participation of UNITA and the assistance of the international community.

II. Specific Principles

1. After the process of selection of UNITA military forces, the selected personnel will be incorporated in FAA, under the supervision of the General Staff of FAA in which the Generals of UNITA will have already been present.

2. For administrative and logistic reasons, the excess personnel will be dependent on the above-mentioned General Staff for their professional training, demobilization and reintegration into civilian society.

The working group will be responsible for monitoring the following tasks concerning the completion of the formation of FAA and demobilization:

(a) Selection criteria

(e) Identification of the location and rehabilitation of the already existing vocational training centers for the soldiers to be demobilized

Implementation History

1994

No Implementation

There were no major developments in November or December. 

1995

Minimum Implementation

As of December 1995, reintegration programs were said to have been in a stage of “preparation”. Fifteen quartering areas for UNITA troops were under construction and the sites had been approved by the parties. The labor had come from within the UNAVEM military component.1

UNAVEM’s end of year report (1995) stated that UNDP, UCAH, and the International Labour Organization were preparing reintegration programs “to support the social integration of demobilized soldiers. These programs, to be administered through the Institute for the Reintegration of Ex-Soldiers and the Ministry of Social Assistance, will provide counseling and referral service, vocational training, business training, micro-credits and tool kits, as well as grants for quick-impact projects.”2

  • 1. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1995/1012), December 7, 1995.
  • 2. Ibid.
1996

Minimum Implementation

In August, the Council of Ministers of the National Program for Demobilization and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants, with assistance from the World Bank and other NGOs, adopted “a set of complementary projects aimed at facilitating the short-, medium- and long-term socio-economic reintegration of ex-combatants.”3

The Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit continued its food, health, and sanitation programs for quartered UNITA troops and 120,000 of their dependents who were also residents in the camps, and administered 130,000 medical examinations. Residents received “civic training programs focusing on demobilization and social reintegration of ex-combatants.”4

  • 3. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1996/827), October 4, 1996.
  • 4. Ibid.
1997

Minimum Implementation

As of 1 June 1997, “over 23,000 demobilized soldiers and their dependents had been transported to their areas of origin or choice and provided with basic medical care and multi-purpose reintegration kits.”5

  • 5. “Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1997/438), June 5, 1997.
1998

Minimum Implementation

Over 6,000 demobilized ex-combatants had been registered by the Counseling and Referral Service (SeCOR) from March to June. Vocational training had been given to 6,000 beneficiaries. It was reported that funding remained a major problem for all the reintegration projects.6

In the last issuance of 1998, MONUA reported that the Angolan government and UNITA forces had continued to perform extensive military operation” and that MONUA personnel, under phase IV of their security plan, were withdrawn from all provinces.7

The Uppsala Conflict Data Program coded the conflict between the Angolan government and UNITA as reaching the threshold of “war” in 1998 with over 1000 total deaths in the year. Coding for this case stops December 31, 1998.

  • 6. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA)M,” U.N. Security Council (S/1998/524), June 17, 1998.
  • 7. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA),” U.N. Security Council (S/1998/1110), November 23, 1998.