Reintegration: Luena Memorandum of Understanding

CHAPTER 2: AGENDA FOR THE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING:

3. CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND PENDING MILITARY ISSUES UNDER THE TERMS OF THE LUSAKA PROTOCOL: (F) SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL REINTEGRATION OF DEMOBILIZED EXMILITARY FORCES OF UNITA PERSONNEL INTO THE NATIONAL LIFE

3.12. The parties reiterate their engagement in the scrupulous fulfillment of their commitments and obligations related to the task of social reintegration of demobilized personnel (in the spirit foreseen in Annex 4, point II. 1 of the Work Agenda - Military Issues II of the Lusaka Protocol).

3.13 In this regard, the Government, through the General Staff of the Angolan Armed Forces and competent public organizations and services, with the participation of UNITA and with the assistance of the international community, proceeds to the reintegration of demobilized personnel into civil society under a program of socio-professional reintegration.

3.14 The social and professional reintegration of demobilized personnel from the ex-UNITA Military Forces encompasses the following:

a) The protection, housing and feeding of ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel in preparation centers.

b) The professional preparation of ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel regarding their competence to enter the national labor market. This will be accomplished by way of an urgent and special social reintegration program.

ANNEX 4

TO THE COMPLEMENTARY MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING TO THE LUSAKA PROTOCOL FOR THE CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND RESOLUTION OF REMAINING MILITARY ISSUES PENDING UNDER THE TERMS OF THE LUSAKA PROTOCOL

DOCUMENT RELATED TO THE SOCIAL-PROFESSIONAL REINTEGRATION OF DEMOBILIZED EX-UNITA MILITARY FORCES PERSONNEL

The delegation of the Angolan Armed Forces and the delegation of UNITA Military Forces to the military talks, agree to the following concerning the social-professional reintegration of demobilized ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel:

1. The social-professional reintegration of demobilized ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel consists of ascribing civic value and undertaking socio-economic promotion by competent organs and entities of the state in strict cooperation with the FAA General Staff and with the support of the UN, in accordance with the mandate to be given by the UN Security Council or other agencies of the UN system. To achieve this end, it is considered imperative to:

(i) Guarantee initial assistance to demobilized ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel,

(ii) Guarantee general and specific preparation of ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel,

(iii) Assure their supported reintegration into national life.

2. The process of social-professional reintegration of ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel is to be realized by the following different means:

(i) The social-professional reintegration of ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel into the National Reconstruction Service.

(ii) The social-professional reintegration of ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel into the national labor market, namely the public sector and private sector.

(iii) The social-professional reintegration of ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel into the Population Resettlement Program.

3. The number of ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel subject to social-professional reintegration may reach 45,000.

Implementation History

2002

Minimum Implementation

The Angolan Government announced that a planned reintegration program, which includes psychological counseling, temporary settlements, general education, and job training for 55,000 former UNITA fighters, would cost an estimated 55 million dollars.1

On 23 October, it was announced that the Joint Commission (the United Nations, UNITA, the Angolan Government) had begun reviewing the process of social reintegration of demobilized soldiers.2

  • 1. “Angola: Socio-Economic Reintegration Programme to Cost 55m US Dollars,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, June 8, 2002.
  • 2. “Angola: Joint Commission Reviews Reintegration of Ex-Soldiers,” Africa News, October 23, 2002.
2003

Intermediate Implementation

United Nations officials in Angola announced in January that the reintegration program for some 8,000 child soldiers into society had officially begun.3

Speaking at the official opening of the program, the Social Reintegration Minister, Joao Kussumua, announced that the government had made available 125 million dollars for social reintegration programs for former UNITA soldiers and their families.4

After a 4 day visit in August, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees gave the social reintegration programs high marks for their progress over the first six months.5

  • 3. “Angola: Reintegration of Child Soldiers Underway,” Africa News, January 15, 2003.
  • 4. “Angola Earmarks 125m Dollars for Former UNITA Soldiers' Reintegration,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, January 29, 2003.
  • 5. “Angola: UN High Commissioner for Refugees in Luanda, Says Reintegration of Ex-UNITA Soldiers Remarkable,” Africa News, August 22, 2003.
2004

Intermediate Implementation

Officials from the World Bank, UNDP, and FAO conducted an assessment mission in Huambo on the social reintegration of UNITA soldiers. During the assessment, 50 demobilized UNITA troops received farming kits comprised of various seeds, hoes, files, and harvesting equipment.6

The World Bank donated 33 million USD for the social reintegration of former UNITA combatants and National Army troops.7

In June, two 45-day training courses on plumbing and electrical work commenced in the Balombo municipality.8

Sean Bradley, the World Bank Coordinator for Reintegration, remarked in October that he was not dissatisfied with the amount of progress made thus far. According to Bradley, “Around 50,000 ex-combatants received basic seeds and tools to restart subsistence agriculture activities and about 4,700 were currently involved in economic reintegration activities.”9 

  • 6. “Angola: Huambo: World Bank Mission Assesses Ex-Soldiers Reintegration Process,” Africa News, February 20, 2004.
  • 7. “Angola: World Bank to Grant USD 33 Million for Social Reintegration,” Africa News, April 1, 2004.
  • 8. “Angola: Benguela: Ex-Soldiers Envisage Social and Economic Reintegration,” Africa News, June 2, 2004.
  • 9. “Angola: More Needs to Be Done for Reintegration of Former Soldiers,” Africa News, October 29, 2004.
2005

Intermediate Implementation

The Institute of Socio-Professional Reintegration of Ex-Militaries (IRSEM) and participating NGOs met in central Bie to assess ongoing social reintegration programs and to develop improved strategies.10

  • 10. “Angola: New Mechanisms for Ex-Soldiers Reintegration Drafted,” Africa News, November 4, 2005.
2006

Full Implementation

A Portuguese NGO (Cooperation, Interchange and Culture) devoted 323,000 USD to the social reintegration of 802 UNITA soldiers in the central Huambo province. The program provided training courses on raising cattle, making fertilizer, carpentry, and the organization of trade and markets. After taking the courses, the participants received equipment associated with their areas of training.11

The Angolan government reported that, as of September, social reintegration programs had been implemented in 17 of Angola’s 18 provinces.12

The UNITA and Government Bilateral Committee reported in October that 107 social reintegration programs were implemented with 82,000 ex-soldiers receiving some kind of job training and assistance package.13

  • 11. “Angola: Portuguese NGO Invests USD 323,000 for Ex-Soldiers' Reintegration,” Africa News, July 13, 2006.
  • 12. “Angola: $28 Million Used in Demobilisation, Reintegration Programme,” Africa News, September 6, 2006.
  • 13. “Angola: Government, UNITA Analyse Ex-Soldiers Reintegration,” Africa News, October 26, 2006.
2007

Full Implementation

In 2007, an American NGO (Care International) spent 1.3 million USD on social reintegration programs in the Bie province, which provided training and equipment to 3,600 demobilized soldiers in the area.14

  • 14. “Angola: Bié - NGO Spends Over USD One Million in Reintegration of Ex-Soldiers,” Africa News, November 30, 2007.
2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.