Reintegration: Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi

Protocol V: Guarantees on Implementation of the Agreement

8. Reintegration Commission

(a) The organ provided for in article 21, paragraph 8 of Protocol III to the Agreement, hereinafter referred to as the Reintegration Commission shall have the role of organizing, supervising, monitoring and ensuring the effective economic and social reintegration of the troops and combatants who, as a result of the demobilization process carried out in conformity with article 21 of Protocol III to the Agreement, have become civilians.

(b) The Reintegration Commission shall consist of representatives of the Government, the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity. It shall be chaired by the Government.

(c) The Reintegration Commission shall commence its activities on the day of its establishment. These activities must be completed before the commencement of the electoral process.

Implementation History

2003

No Implementation

After signing of an agreement with CNDD-FDD on 2 November 2003, the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration process in Burundi was scheduled to begin within 30 days. No significant achievement was made except for the announcement of commencement of demobilization of child combatants in January 2004 in sponsorship of the UNICEF.1

  • 1. "Demobilization scheduled for January 2004 in northwest Burundi," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 23, 2003.
2004

No Implementation

Transitional government had established National Commission for demobilization, Reinsertion and Reintegration (CNDRR) with the assistance from the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP) – a program sponsored by various partner countries, donor agencies and international institutions including World Bank. This MDRP program was expected to demobilize and reintegrate estimated 300,000 combatants from countries in the Great Lake region.2

In March, it was estimated that the Burundian Armed Force had 45,000 troops, and total number of combatants from political parties and movement were estimated to be about 35,000.3 In August, the government announced to integrate all combatants into state defense force and initiate demobilization estimated 55,000 that would leave the army of 20,000 personnel.4 In early November, the NCDRR confirmed the DDR process to begin on 29 November. The Process, however, was officially started on 2 December. In the function attended by the country’s president and the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General, 100 assault rifles were burned. In the first phase of the program, 14,000 combatants were expected to be demobilized and receive reintegration support from MDRP trust fund.5

  • 2. "MDRP Progress Report," Multicountry Demobilization and Reintigration Program, accessed February 21, 2013, http://www.mdrp.org/doc_rep_main.htm#Progress_Reports.
  • 3. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2004/210), March 16, 2004.
  • 4. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2004/682), August 25, 2004; "MDRP Supported Activities in Burundi," Multicountry Demobilization and Reintigration Program, accessed February 21, 2013, http://www.mdrp.org/PDFs/MDRP_BUR_FS_1208.pdf.
  • 5. "Burundi; Demobilization Starts in Burundi," Africa News, December 9, 2004.
2005

Minimum Implementation

By mid-October, 17,459 combatants from the state armed force and the political parties and movement were demobilized. Among demobilized combatants, 3007 were children and 482 were female combatants.6 The demobilized combatants were given allowances.

Financed from the MDRP Trust Fund, transitional reinsertion payments to demobilized combatants was started. For the reintegration of ex-combatants, various projects such as vocational training, small enterprise development, income-generating activities, access to secondary and tertiary education and employment referral were planned but implementation of those projects was very slow.7

  • 6. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2005/728), November 21, 2005.
  • 7. Ibid.
2006

Intermediate Implementation

According to Secretary General’s Report, 18,642 former combatants from all sides received cash reinsertion benefits, 5,412 received benefits from integration projects such as vocational trainings. Of 3,015 child combatants demobilized, 599 were enrolled in schools and 896 were receiving vocational trainings demobilized.8

  • 8. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2006/994), December 18, 2006.
2007

Intermediate Implementation

By the end of December, 21,463 ex-combatants benefited from the reintegration/reinsertion programs.9

2008

Intermediate Implementation

As of December 2008, only 23,022 demobilized combatants received reintegration support from the MDRP program.10 Because the MDRP program ended by 31 December 2008, the United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi was coordinating with the government and the World Bank to develop a new strategy for the demobilization, disarmament and reintegration of combatants.11

  • 10. Ibid.
  • 11. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2008/745), November 28, 2008.
2009

Intermediate Implementation

In august, over 11,000 FNL combatants assembled in pre-assembly areas and they received return kits and first installment of assistance and transportation support to return to their communities.12 Various projects and opportunities such as reconstructing community infrastructures (roads, bridges, health centers, schools) and other programs were launched by UNDP in coordination with the government, international donor agencies and Peacebuilding Trust. The BINUB and UNDP also worked on finalizing sustainable economic incentives for ex-combatants Fund.13 In fact, ex-combatants were given on average $600 of cash allowances in 10 installments.14

  • 12. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," The United Nations Security Council (S/2009/611), November 30, 2009.
  • 13. Ibid.
  • 14. A. Caramés, “Burundi (PNDDR, 2004-2008),” in A. Caramés and E. Sanz, Analysis of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) Programmes in the World during 2008, ed. A. Carmés and E. Sanz (Bellaterra: School for a Culture of Peace, 2009), 31-38.
2010

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2011

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2012

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.