Regional Peacekeeping Force: Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi

Protocol V, Article 3:

Functioning and powers of the Implementation Monitoring Committee

(b) Implementation Monitoring Committee shall be chaired by the representative of the United Nations, who shall act in consultation with the Government, the Organization of African Unity and the Regional Peace Initiative on Burundi.

Ceasefire Agreement, Annex I, Article III:

1. The African mission shall be responsible for monitoring and verifying the ceasefire. Prior to this process, joint liaison teams shall be set up which shall function at the national, provincial and local levels.

2. The African mission shall create the organs and mechanisms for monitoring and verifying the ceasefire. It shall draw up its own rules of procedure.

Annex 1 to the Burundi Ceasefire Agreement (2 December 2002)

A. Stages of the ceasefire

1.1 Phase I

1.1.4 Deployment of the African mission.

Implementation History

2003

Full Implementation

A formal decision of deploying African Mission was made in February 2002, which led to the African Union’s Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution’s mandate on 2 April 2003 to deploy some 3,500 troops from Mozambique, South Africa and Ethiopia.1 In fact, African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) had 3,000 strong force deployed in Burundi by the end of April 2003.2 The Mission had received support from the transitional government from its European Development Fund as well as bilateral support from the US, UK, Italy and Germany among other countries.3

As specified in the accord, the main responsibility of the African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) were to supervise the implementation of ceasefire accord, support the DDR initiatives, and create favorable condition for the deployment of UN peacekeeping forces. By its presence, the troops from the African Mission in Burundi deterred or discouraged the ceasefire violations. They also supported the DDR process.

  • 1. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2003/1146), December 4, 2003.
  • 2. "African peacekeeping force deploys in Burundi," Xinhua General News Service, April 28, 2003.
  • 3. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2003/1146), December 4, 2003.
2004

Full Implementation

To evaluate whether the condition improved on the ground, the United Nations Secretary General sent an assessment mission to Burundi in February 2003. As the assessment mission indicated improvement in the security situation in Burundi, the UN Secretary General proposed United Nations Mission in Burundi (MINUB) to take over and reinforce the role of AIMB In his report, he proposed a minimum strength of some 5,650 military personnel, 200 military observers, 125 headquarters and staff officers.4 On 21 May 2004, the Security Council adopted a recommendation of the Secretary General by adopting a resolution 1545 (2004). This resolution established the United Nations Operation in Burundi. And as of 1 June 2004, the AMIB troops from Ethiopia, Mozambique and South Africa, and 29 military observers from Burkina Faso, Gabon, Mali, Togo and Tunisia became ONBU troops. As of November 2004, there were 5,259 ONBU troops deployed in Burundi.5

  • 4. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2004/210), March 16, 2004.
  • 5. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2004/902), November 15, 2004; "Burundi; UN Mission Replaces Sections of South African Peacekeepers," Africa News, October 25, 2004.
2005

Full Implementation

Regional peacekeeping provision of the accord was successfully implemented in 2003.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2012

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.