Regional Peacekeeping Force: Abuja Peace Agreement

ABUJA PEACE AGREEMENT

2. To the total withdrawal from Guinea-Bissau of all foreign troops. This withdrawal shall be done simultaneously with the deployment of an ECOWAS Military Observer Group interposition force, which will take over from the withdrawn forces.

Implementation History

1998

Intermediate Implementation

As fighting continued in Guinea-Bissau, the president called upon the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to intervene to restore order. In its 18th security meeting in Abidjan held on 3 July 1999, the ECOWAS foreign ministers made a decision to send the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) force if dialogue between the leaders from the military and the government failed.1 In the Abuja Peace Agreement, the deployment of the ECOWAS Military Observer Group interposition force was supposed to happen simultaneously with the withdrawal of foreign troops. In support of President Vieira, Senegal and Guinea had sent troops to Guinea-Bissau.2

After the Abuja Peace Accord, an ECOMOG evaluation team from Nigeria was sent to Guinea-Bissau to take over from Guinea and Senegalese troops, which were sent to support President Vieira.3 On November 19, the Nigerian Parliament approved the deployment of 500 Nigerian troops under the ECOMOG in Guinea-Bissau.4 In December, the United Nations approved the ECOWAS initiative of restoring peace in Guinea-Bissau.5 Between 26 December 1998 and 2 January 1999, there were 110 Togolese troops deployed in Guinea-Bissau as an ECOMOG interposition force.6

  • 1. “Guinea-Bissau; Ministers Endorse ECOMOG Intervention In Guinea-Bissau,” Africa News, July 4, 1998.
  • 2. “Hopes dashed over Guinea-Bissau conflict, as West African summit ends,” Agence France Presse, October 31, 1998.
  • 3. “ECOMOG evaluation team sent to Guinea-Bissau,” Xinhua News Agency, November 14, 1998.
  • 4. “West Africa; Niger Parliament Approves 500 Soldiers For Guinea-Bissau,” Africa News, November 19, 1998.
  • 5. “Guinea-Bissau; UN Endorses ECOWAS Plan For Guinea-Bissau,” Africa News, December 22, 1998.
  • 6. “Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to Security Council resolution 1216 (1998) relative to the situation in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/294), March 17, 1999.
1999

Intermediate Implementation

The ECOWAS Military Observer Group interposition force was deployed and by March of 1999, there were 600 ECOMOG interposition force troops in Guinea-Bissau. These ECOMOG troops were sent from Benin, the Gambia, the Niger and Togo7 The ECOMOG troops were expected to stay at least until the holding of post-conflict elections. However, immediately after the military coup that deposed President Vieira, the ECOWAS foreign ministers had an emergency meeting on 25 May. In the meeting, the foreign ministers agreed to withdraw all ECOMOG troops, notwithstanding requests from the national unity government of Guinea-Bissau to continue their mandate.8 The last ECOMOG troops were withdrawn on 7 June 1999. There were 712 ECOMOG troops drawn from Togo, The Gambia, Benin, and Niger before ECOWAS made the decision to withdraw its mission.9 Notwithstanding its initial success in maintaining peace, the withdrawal of ECOWAS troops subsequent to the 7 May military coup made the ECOWAS mandate obsolete.10

  • 7. Ibid.
  • 8. “Report pursuant to Security Council resolution 1233 (1999) relative to the situation in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/741), July 1, 1999; “ECOWAS Foreign Ministers Take Decisions on Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone,” BBC Monitoring Africa, May 27, 1999.
  • 9. "Guinea-Bissau," Keesing's Record of Wolrd Events 45 (January 1999):42708.
  • 10. “Report pursuant to Security Council resolution 1233 (1999) relative to the situation in Guinea-Bissau.”
2000

Intermediate Implementation

The regional peacekeeping provision of the accord was partly implemented when the ECOWAS troops were withdrawn in the midst of the transitional period.

2001

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.