Refugees: National Pact

TITLE II ON THE FINAL CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND ON THE SETTLEMENT OF QUESTIONS EMERGING FROM THE SITUATION OF ARMED CONFLICT

9. A programme for the repatriation of displaced persons will be prepared before signature of the present Pact. The programme will be started within 60 days of the signing of the Pact, which is to say at the end of the execution of arrangements concerning the ceasefire described in paragraph 7 above, which reads as follows:

Within sixty days following the signature of the Pact, a programme will be put into effect comprised of the following measures:

Every effort will be made to ensure that the repatriation programme will be completed within 60 days after its launch.

10. The repatriation programme will be carried out jointly by the Government and the Movements in collaboration with the authorities of the host countries, together with friendly countries and international humanitarian organisations which will be contacted to this effect.

11. The reinsertion of displaced populations and the assistance to victims of all the consequences of the armed conflict in Northern Mali will give rise to the creation of two Funds:

-a Fund for development and reinsertion, which will support the creation of small and medium-sized industries, and small and medium-sized enterprises, and the insertion of the displaced populations into production systems,

-a Fund for assistance and compensation to civil and military victims of the two parties and their heirs, for all the consequences of the armed conflict. This Fund will compensate as a priority, victims identified by the Independent Commission of Enquiry.

A permanent mechanism will be instituted to assist military victims of the two parties and their heirs.
These two Funds will be created within thirty days of the signature of the present Pact.

TITLE VI: ON THE TIMETABLE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ARRANGEMENTS OF THIS NATIONAL RECONCILIATION PACT

67. The programme for voluntary repatriation of Northern populations displaced within the countries of the sub-region, will be launched 60 days after signature of the Pact, with the assistance of the host countries as well as of friendly countries and international humanitarian organisations, and in coordination between the State and the Movements. This programme shall be completed within 60 days with the assistance for reinsertion provided from the Funds cited in paragraph 68 above. During this period, assistance will also be provided to persons displaced within the country and who have suffered because of the conflict.

Implementation History

1992

No Implementation

In the agreement, “displaced” refers to Tuaregs who were displaced in the African region or who were refugees in neighboring states.

Though the National Pact was signed but many remained doubtful of its ability to secure lasting peace, peace persisted among Tuareg rebels. Even after the signing of the accord, troops continued their attacks on civilians.1 Yet the repartitions also started and refugees from Algeria and Mauritania started to return to Mali. 

  • 1. "MALI NOMADS FLEE ACROSS BORDER; Jacky Rowland in Bassikounou on the refugees who face a bleak future in the camps of Mauritania," The Guardian (London), April 14, 1992.
1993

No Implementation

The repartition of refugees did not occur in 1993. 

1994

No Implementation

The repartition of refugees did not occur in 1994 due to an outbreak of violence, which created 160,000 new refugees in 1994. 2

  • 2. Susanna Wing, Constructing Democracy in Africa: Mali in Transition (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 161.
1995

Intermediate Implementation

According to the UNHCR Report, some 39,022 refugees returned to Mali in 1995.3 In the meantime, government launched a reconciliation program in northern Mali. 

1996

Intermediate Implementation

According to the UNHCR Report, some 22,000 refugees returned in 1996. 4 Situation in Mali significantly improved with the decentralization process going on and the demobilization, disarmament and integration and reintegration of ex-combatants. 

1997

Intermediate Implementation

According to the UNHCR Report, some 34,496 refugees returned to Mali in 1997.5

1998

Intermediate Implementation

According to the UNHCR Report, some 26,889 refugees returned to northern Mali in 1998.6 By 1998, 131,780 refugees returned from Burkina Faso, Algeria, Niger, Senegal and Mauritania. The UNHCR funded the returnees with an assistance program. The program was implemented with help from the WFP and eleven other NGO partners.7

1999

Intermediate Implementation

According to the UNHCR Report, some 5,045 refugees returned to northern Mali between 1999 and 2002.8 The devolution of power to the collectivities also helped to create a friendlier environment for the reintegration of refugees back to the society. However, except for the UNHCR funding, the future of further funding for the reintegration – especially on the governmental level – was unclear. 

  • 8. "2002 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook."
2000

Intermediate Implementation

Refugees returned to northern Mali continued in 2000.9

2001

Intermediate Implementation

Refugees returned to northern Mali continued in 2001.10