Refugees: General Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Senegal and MFDC

Clause four: Stimulation of Economic and Social Activities

2. The State engages to take all measures in order to facilitate the returning home of refugees and displaced persons and to give necessary support in favour of their social reintegration.

Implementation History

2005

No Implementation

The government provided returning internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees roofing materials for home construction and sacks of rice.1

  • 1. “Senegal - 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices,” United States Department of State, March 8, 2006.
2006

No Implementation

As insecurity affected the Casamance through 2006, residents fled and were displaced.2 More than 4,500 Senegalese refugees sought refuge in Gambia in August 2006.3 By the end of October, the number of refugees had grown to 6,200.4

  • 2. “Some 4,500 Displaced By Clashes Between Separatists, Guinea-Bissau Troops,” United Nations Integrated Regional Information Networks, March 20, 2006.
  • 3. “Senegalese Refugees Flood Gambia to Escape Clashes, UN Agency Says,” United Nations News Service, August 23, 2006.
  • 4. "Senegalese Fleeing to Gambia from Clashes in South now Total 6,200," United Nations (United Nations Reports), October 31, 2006.
2007

No Implementation

In January 2007, renewed fighting in Southern Casamance sent Senegalese refugees, who had recently returned from Guinea Bissau, back to Guinea Bissau. In November, a faction of the splintered MFDC warned residents not to return to the Casamance from Guinea Bissau.5

  • 5. “Lack of Basics Blocks Return of War-Weary Displaced,” United Nations Integrated Regional Information Networks, January 24, 2008.
2008

No Implementation

Water shortage and fear of mines reportedly kept refugees from returning to their villages in the Casamance.6 In one village, those returning were kidnapped by Casamance rebels.7

  • 6. Ibid.
  • 7. “Rebels Act On Kidnap Threats in Casamance,” United Nations Integrated Regional Information Networks, March 20, 2008.
2009

Minimum Implementation

In October 2009, an estimated 1,000 residents fled after fighting occurred in their villages in the Guinea-Bissau border region.8 Many of the people displaced started to return to their homes a few days after the clashes ended.9 

  • 8. “Increased violence in Senegal forces 1,000 residents to flee,” Voice of America News, October 5, 2009.
  • 9. “Confronting aid challenges in volatile Casamance, Integrated Regional Information Networks,” IRIN AFRICA, October 19, 2009.
2010

Minimum Implementation

Rebel fighting in 2010 led to continued migrations and displacements.10 The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) estimated in 2010 that some 40,000 people were still displaced in the Casamance.11

  • 10. “Senegal rebels force hundreds to flee,” Agence France Presse, February 3, 2010.
  • 11. “Senegal: Microprojects restore dignity in Casamance," International Commitee of the Red Cross, March 4, 2010.
2011

Minimum Implementation

Displacement continued during the year. The number fluctuated according to the ebb and flow of the conflict with estimates over 10,000.12

  • 12. “2011 Reports on Human Rights Practices Senegal,” United States Department of State, May 24, 2012.
2012

Minimum Implementation

According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the number of refugees residing in Senegal was an estimated 20,600, while the number of refugees originating from Senegal was an estimated 17,700.13

  • 13. “2012 Statistical Snapshot Senegal,” United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), January 2012.
2013

Minimum Implementation

The US State Department Human Rights Report reported that the government was committed to providing protection and assistance to IDPs, refugees, and stateless persons in cooperation with the Office of UN High Commissioner for Refugees. It was reported that the government permitted unsupervised and informal repatriation of Casamance refugees returning from the Gambia and Guinea-Bissau.14

  • 14. "Country Reports on Human Rights Practice for 2013 – Senegal," Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, 2013.
2014

Minimum Implementation

Unsupervised and informal repatriation of Casamance refugees from the Gambia and Guinea-Bissau continued in 2014.15

  • 15. "Country Reports on Human Rights Practice for 2014 – Senegal," Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, 2014.