Refugees: Agreement on Ending Hostilities in the Republic of Congo

AGREEMENT ON ENDING HOSTILITIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CONGO

(29 DECEMBER 1999)

Chapter II: The Monitoring Commission for the Agreements on Cease-Fire and End of Hostilities

Article 2: The signatories of this agreement agree to the establishment of a mixed and equal Monitoring Commission for the Agreement on Ceasefire and Ending Hostilities, responsible for:

Monitoring and verifying stipulations for the implementation of cease- fires in conflict zones;

Deed Supporting the Responsibilities and Composition of the Monitoring Commission for the Agreements on Cease-Fire and End of Hostilities in the Republic Of Congo

Article 4: The cease-fire and end of hostilities Monitoring Commission is divided into working committees, namely:

2. the committee for the resettlement of displaced and exiled people in their habitual place of residence.

Implementation History

2000

Intermediate Implementation

An estimated 40,000 people had fled the Republic of Congo (ROC) as of 1999.1 As soon as the accords were signed in November and December 1999, refugees started to return. In November 1999, 350 refugees who had returned to the ROC from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) went missing, or rather, were disappeared.2 According to a news report, refugees started to return to the Pool region of the country.

Refugees started to return in trainloads: the first train brought some 2,300 refugees to the Pool region on 18 March 2000; some 1,800 refugees arrived in the Mindouli region on the second trainload on 26 March 2000.3 It was reported that the United Nations was trying to generate international support to meet the humanitarian needs of refugees.4 According to Muggah, the number of refugees declined to 12,340 in 2000.5

  • 1. Robert Muggah, “The Anatomy of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration in the Republic of Congo,” Conflict, Security & Development, 4(1): 21-37 (2004): 22.
  • 2. “Still in Search of Justice Ten Years since the Disappearances of Over 350 in Republic of Congo,” International Refugee Rights Initiative, Refugee Rights News 2009, accessed June 22, 2012, http://www.refugee-rights.org/Publications/RRN/2009/May/V5.I3.StillInSea....
  • 3. “Thousands return to devastated Republic of Congo region,” Associated Press, March 23, 2000.
  • 4. “End to civil war in Republic of Congo creates humanitarian crisis,” Associated Press, February 23, 2000.
  • 5. Robert Muggah, “The Anatomy of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration in the Republic of Congo,” 22.
2001

Minimum Implementation

Information related to the repatriation of refugees was not available. Periodic violence was reported. The rebels took a military general hostage and a French priest went missing from the conflict zone.6 Due to conflict, the number of refugees grew in 2001 to 119,150.7

  • 6. “Republic of Congo's 'Ninja' rebels take general hostage; Catholic priest missing,” Associated Press, April 6, 2002.
  • 7. Robert Muggah, “The Anatomy of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration in the Republic of Congo,” 22.
2002

Minimum Implementation

The continued fighting hurt the refugee repatriation programs. By the end of 2002, there were an estimated 109,150 refugees.8

  • 8. Ibid., 22.
2003

Minimum Implementation

After 2003, not much information was available on refugees or how refugees were resettled once they were repatriated. According to the final report of the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), there were an estimated 28,000 refugees originating from the ROC in 2002 and 29,000 in 2003.9

2004

Minimum Implementation

According to the final report of the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), there were an estimated 28,200 refugees in 2004.10 

  • 10. “MDRP Final Report: Overview of Program Achievements.”
2005

Minimum Implementation

According to the final report of the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), there were an estimated 24,400 refugees in 2005.11

2006

Minimum Implementation

According to the final report of the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), there were an estimated 20,600 refugees in 2006.12

2007

Minimum Implementation

According to the final report of the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), there were an estimated 19,700 refugees in 2007.13

2008

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2009

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.