Powersharing Transitional Government: Ouagadougou Political Agreement (OPA)

OUAGADOUGOU POLITICAL AGREEMENT 

V. Institutional framework for implementation

5.1. The two Parties to the direct dialogue, exercising effective administrative and military control on both sides of the zone of confidence, conscious of their heavy responsibilities for the functioning of the State and determined to bring about political and institutional normalization based on the joint exercise of political power and on national reconciliation, have decided to establish a new institutional framework for implementation.

5.2. The Government of Transition shall work in a spirit of permanent consultation, complementarity and openness to the other political forces in Côte d'Ivoire to bring about national reunification, disarmament and the organization of open, transparent and democratic elections, as provided for in the various agreements and resolutions for overcoming the crisis.

Implementation History

2007

Intermediate Implementation

The Ouagadougou Political Agreement provided that a transition government be established and the political forces in Ivory Coast exercise political power in a spirit of permanent consultation to bring about national unification, disarmament, and reconciliation. The transitional government, as per the spirit of the agreement, would cease to exist once post-conflict elections were held. The new transitional government was to be formed within five weeks of signing the accord (by 8 April 2007).

A transitional power-sharing government was formed in a timely manner. On 26 March 2007, rebel leader Guillaume Soro and President Laurent Gbagbo reached a supplemental agreement for the formation of a transitional government. As per the accord, Mr. Soro, who was Secretary General of Forces Nouvelles, would be Prime Minister. The transitional government would have 33 cabinet ministers.1

By signing a decree, President Laurent Gbagbo appointed Guillaume Soro as Prime Minister on 29 March.2 Soro assumed his responsibility on 4 April 2007.3 On 7 April 2007, Gbabgo signed another decree establishing a transitional government comprised of 33 cabinet ministers. In the transitional government, Forces Nouvelles had seven ministers, whereas Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), the party of the president, had nine ministers; Rally of Republicans (RDR) had 5 ministers; Democratic Party of Côte d’Ivoire-African Democratic Rally (PDCI-RDA) had 5 ministers; Union for Democracy and Peace in Côte d’Ivoire (UDPCI) had 2 ministers; the Democratic and Citizens Union (UDCY), the Ivorian Labour Party (PIT), and the Movement of the Forces of the Future (MFA) each had 1 minister; and there were 2 ministers that represented civil society.4 The transitional government, however, was dominated by the president’s party, which held the interior and defense ministry. Forces Nouvelles had the justice, tourism, and communication portfolios.5 The main responsibility of the transitional government was to hold post-conflict presidential elections within 10 months. As per the supplemental agreement, Mr. Soro was prohibited from running in the elections.6

On 27 November, Prime Minister Guillaume Soro and President Laurent Gbagbo signed a deal to hold presidential elections in late June 2008.7 It was also agreed that a census should be completed prior to elections.

  • 1. “Rebel leader to become Ivory Coast Prime Minister,” Agency France Presse, March 27, 2007; “Thirteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2007/ 275), May 14, 2007; “Report of the Chairperson of the Commission on the Situation in Côte D’ivoire,”  African Union Peace and Security Council (PSC/PR/2(CIV)), December 19, 2007.
  • 2. “Ivory Coast rebel leader becomes prime minister under peace deal prime minister,” Associated Press, March 29, 2007; “Report of the Chairperson of the Commission on the Situation in Côte D’ivoire,”  African Union Peace and Security Council (PSC/PR/2(CIV)), December 19, 2007.
  • 3. “Former rebel leader takes over as Ivory Coast's prime minister,” Associated Press, April 4, 2007.
  • 4. “Report of the Chairperson of the Commission on the Situation in Côte D’ivoire,”  African Union Peace and Security Council (PSC/PR/2(CIV)), December 19, 2007.
  • 5. “New Ivory Coast peace government a boost for Gbagbo,” Agence France Presse, April 12, 2007.
  • 6. “Thirteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2007/ 275), May 14, 2007
  • 7. “Ivory Coast Leaders Agree Elections by June 2008: Minister,” Agence France Presse, November 27, 2007.
2008

Minimum Implementation

The transition government was intact as of December 2008. Nevertheless, the mandate to hold elections within 10 months was not fulfilled. In November 2007, Prime Minister Guillaume Soro and President Laurent Gbagbo signed a deal to hold presidential elections in June 2008, which were again rescheduled for 30 November 2008. On 10 November, President Laurent Gbagbo and Prime Minister Guillaume Soro, along with prominent politician Alassane Ouattara and former President Henri Konan Bedie, agreed to postpone elections due to delays in voter registration. It was reported that former warring parties were not completely disarmed.8

  • 8. “Ivory Coast; Presidential Elections Delayed Again," Facts on File World News Digest, December 23, 2008.
2009

Minimum Implementation

The transition government was intact as of December 2009. In May 2009, under tremendous international pressure from the US and the UN, the Ivory Coast government finally announced elections for 29 November 2009.9 The much awaited elections, however, were delayed as the statuses of almost one million voters in the voter registration list were disputed and were expected to be held in late February or early March.10

  • 9. “Ivory Coast sets long-awaited election for Nov. 29,” Associated Press, May 14, 2009.
  • 10. “Pressure Mounts for Ivory Coast Election,” Voice of America News, December 9, 2009.
2010

Full Implementation

The transitional government was in place as of December 2010. In August, transitional government announced that the much-delayed elections were to be held on 31 October 2010.11 In the elections, President Gbagbo won 38.3 percent; ex-prime minister Alassane Ouattara won 32.08 percent, and Henri Konan Bedie won 25 percent of the vote. As none of the candidates won a clear majority, a runoff election was scheduled for 29 November.12 Elections were held as scheduled and the ex-prime minister Alassane Ouattara won the elections. However, the incumbent president and his supporters rejected the results, which plunged the Ivory Coast into renewed civil wars.13 Following disputed elections, Prime Minister Guillaume Soro submitted his resignation to Alassane Ouattara. Alassane Ouattara then re-appointed Mr. Soro as Prime Minister. Mr. Soro then appointed a 13-member cabinet on 5 December 2010. On 7 December 2010, Laurent Gbagbo also appointed his own government.14 As such, by the end of 2011, the power-sharing transitional government completed its mandate of holding presidential elections and was terminated.

  • 11. “Ivory Coast long-delayed election now set for Oct,” Associated Press, August 5, 2010.
  • 12. “Ivory Coast Presidential Elections Heads to Runoff,” CNN.com, November 8, 2010
  • 13. “Ivory Coast election winner named; Uncertainty continues as incumbent president's supporters reject results,” The International Herald Tribune, December 4, 2010.
  • 14. “Twenty-seventh progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2011/211), March 30, 2011.
2011

Full Implementation

The power-sharing transitional government completed its mandate of holding post-conflict elections and was terminated in December 2010.

2012

Full Implementation

The power-sharing transitional government completed its mandate of holding post-conflict elections and was terminated in December 2010.

2013

Full Implementation

The power-sharing transitional government completed its mandate of holding post-conflict elections and was terminated in December 2010.

2014

Full Implementation

The power-sharing transitional government completed its mandate of holding post-conflict elections and was terminated in December 2010.

2015

Full Implementation

The power-sharing transitional government completed its mandate of holding post-conflict elections and was terminated in December 2010.