Powersharing Transitional Government: Lusaka Protocol

Annex 6: Agenda Item II.4: National Reconciliation: I. General Principles:

4. National Reconciliation implies: (c) That, in the pursuit of national interest, UNITA members participate adequately al all levels and in the various institutions of political, administrative and economic activity.

Annex 6: Agenda Item II.4: National Reconciliation:II. Specific Principles:

7. In the context of national reconciliation, all the first 70 deputies elected on the lists of UNITA candidates in the September 1992 legislative elections shall, except in the cases provided for under article 165 (3) of Law 5/92 of 16 April, be installed in their functions in the National Assembly.

The vacancies existing under the terms of article 165 (3) of Law 5/92 of 16 April shall be filled in accordance with the law.

The first 70 deputies elected on the lists of UNITA candidates, all those who have already assumed their functions and those who have not yet done so, shall constitute the UNITA parliamentary group.

The deputies of the UNITA parliamentary group designated by the party leadership and appointed to functions not compatible with their parliamentary duties shall be replaced in accordance with articles 168 and 169 of Law 5/92 of 16 April.

All the deputies in the National Assembly shall enjoy the rights, freedoms, guarantees, immunities and privileges provided by the law.

Annex 6: Agenda Item II.4: National Reconciliation: III. Modalities:

1. In application of the relevant provisions of Article 4 (c) of the general principles of National Reconciliation above, the concrete modalities of participation by UNITA in the various posts in the Government, State administration and diplomatic missions abroad, as agreed between the Government and UNITA and which appear in a document which is an integral part of the annex of the Lusaka Protocol relating to National Reconciliation, shall be specified in a letter to be written by the Angolan authorities to the leaders of that party.

Annex 6: Agenda Item II.4: National Reconciliation: III. Modalities:

8. In application of the provisions of para. 4 (c) of the general principles relating lo National Reconciliation above, members of UNITA appointed to exercise functions in the Central Government and diplomatic missions abroad, the deputies referred to in para. 7 of the specific principles relating to National Reconciliation above, and the UNITA members who will take up posts in the senior ranks of the National Police, shall assume their functions, al the latest, immediately following the completion of the procedures referred to in para. 3 of the specific principles relating lo agenda item II (1) (b). In any of these cases, if the requisite conditions are certified as fulfilled for the purpose, implementation of the preceding provisions of the present para. 8 of the modalities of National Reconciliation shall be brought forward through agreement between the Government and UNITA.

9. The replacement of any holder of the offices allocated to UNITA at all levels of State administration, during the period that the Lusaka Protocol remains in force, shall be effected in accordance with the provisions of the Protocol.

Document relating to UNITA's participation in the central, provincial and local administration and in the diplomatic missions abroad, in accordance with article 1 of the modalities of national reconciliation.

1. Posts within the Central Administration

(i) Ministers
1. Minister of Geology and Mines
2. Minister of Trade
3. Minister of Health
4. Minister of Hotel Business and Tourism

(ii) Deputy Ministers
1. Deputy Minister of Defense
2. Deputy Minister of Home Affairs
3. Deputy Minister of Finance
4. Deputy Minister of Agriculture
5. Deputy Minister of Public Works
6. Deputy Minister of Social Reintegration
7. Deputy Minister of Mass Communication

(iii) Ambassadors
1. Ambassador of Angola in Canada
2. Ambassador of Angola in Mexico
3. Ambassador of Angola in India
4. Ambassador of Angola in Cape Verde
5. Ambassador of Angola in Poland
6. Ambassador of Angola to UNESCO

Implementation History

1994

No Implementation

The Lusaka Accord called for political powersharing as part of a reconciliation process. A couple of specific modalities for giving UNITA representation in the central government were outlined. First, the Accord called for 70 UNITA deputies that were elected in the September 1992 legislative elections to be reinstated in the National Assembly. Second, 17 positions in the central government were listed as positions to be filled by UNITA representatives. Neither of these arrangements were fulfilled in 1994.

1995

No Implementation

In February 1995, UNITA held its 8th ordinary congress in Bailundo, Huambo Province with 1,230 delegates from every province in Angola. The UNITA congress adopted 21 resolutions dealing with the peace process and future plans. Article 16, dealing with the Unity Government, stated the following: “Article 16. The eighth congress decides that UNITA will only participate in the government of national unity on the basis of a common programmer of governing. In present circumstances, UNITA prefers to occupy its space of opposition party.”1

  • 1. “Eighth UNITA Congress's 21-Point Resolution," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 14, 1995.
1996

No Implementation

Africa News reported that the Lusaka Accord reserved a number of minister positions for UNITA officials that had not been filled. No reports of UNITA officials occupying any of the 17 positions can be found.2

  • 2. “Angola Combatants Agree On Troop Encampment,” Africa News, January 1996.
1997

Intermediate Implementation

Major steps towards the full implementation of the powersharing component were taken this year regarding the parliament positions and the minister positions that were to be given to UNITA members. On 10 April 1997, President Dos Santos appointed his cabinet of 28 Ministers into the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation. “Among the 28 cabinet ministers, four are from the National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), a former rebel movement, according to a decree signed by the President. They are Minister of Geology and Mines Marcos Samondo, Health Minister Anastacio Ruben Sikato, Minister of Trade Victorino Hossi and Jorge Valentim, Minister of Hotels and Tourism. The 24 other ministers are from President Dos Santos' People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA)."3

Regarding the seven "Deputy Minister" posts, a report on the formation of the Government of National Unity stated that UNITA occupied four minister posts and seven deputy minister posts.4

Though no names were mentioned for the seven “Deputy Minister” positions, it was later announced that 11 of the top 32 posts in government belonged to UNITA, consisting of the 4 “Minister” positions and the 7 “Deputy Minister” positions.5

On April 11, the National Assembly convened and elected several of the returning UNITA members to commissions in parliament. The Council of Ministers of the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation held its first meeting on 18 April 1997.6 

  • 3. “New Cabinet Formed in Angola,” Xinhua News Agency, April 10, 1997.
  • 4. “Roundup: Road to Peace in Angola Tortuous,” Xinhua News Agency, April 11, 1997.
  • 5. “Joint Press Conference With Russian Federation Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov and Angola's Minister of Foreign Affairs Venancio De Sylva Moura,” Official Kremlin Int'l News Broadcast, April 10, 1998.
  • 6. “Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1997/438), June 5, 1997.
1998

Intermediate Implementation

It was reported on March 17 that the process of appointing UNITA candidates to serve as Ambassadors to Canada, Cape Verde, India, Mexico, Poland, and UNESCO, was ongoing.7 

Later in the year, UNITA members were temporarily suspended from the parliament and then reinstated shortly afterward. On 2 September 1998, five leading UNITA figures voted to set up a new faction called UNITA Renewal, or UNITA-R, led by Jorge Valentim, one of the new UNITA ministers. UNITA-R announced that Savimbi should be replaced as the leader of UNITA since he has "proved incapable of meeting the commitments freely accepted in the Lusaka Protocol and has adopted a policy which is contrary to the interests of the party members and the people of Angola."8 President dos Santos moved to quickly recognize the new faction as the legitimate UNITA organization in order to isolate Savimbi.

On 4 September, the Angolan Government announced that it would no longer recognize the old UNITA or any members still loyal to the old UNITA. The recently appointed Minister of Geology and Mines, Marcos Samondo, and the Vice-Minister of Communication, Aurelio Joao Evangelista, who had refused to break from Jonas Savimbi, were formally dismissed by Presidential decree. The 70 UNITA parliamentarians in the National Assembly were also suspended. 55 of the 70 UNITA parliamentarians announced that they were in support of the break with Savimbi. On 25 September, UNITA-R leadership provided the National Assembly with a list of 57 nominees to replace the suspended 70 UNITA members. Of the 57 names, 55 were the previous members who denounced Savimbi plus 2 other new names. The National Assembly approved the list and reinstated the UNITA members on 23 September 1998.9

UNITA, led by Savimbi, and the Angolan Government returned to full civil war by the end of 1998. 

Coding of this case stops in December 1998.

  • 7. “Angola Peace Monitor,” Africa News, Volume IV, March 30, 1998.
  • 8. Ibid.
  • 9. “Angola Peace Monitor,” Africa News, October 7, 1998.