Powersharing Transitional Government: Luena Memorandum of Understanding

(CHAPTER 1) SUBJECT AND PRINCIPLES OF THE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING

1 -- SUBJECT

1.2. The objective of the Memorandum of Understanding is collaboration between the parties for the resolution of negative military factors posing an obstacle to the Lusaka Protocol, and the creation of conditions for its definitive conclusion.

2 -- FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

2.2. The parties reiterate their unequivocal acceptance of the validity of pertinent political-juridical instruments, namely the Lusaka Protocol and UN Security Council resolutions related to the Angolan peace process.

LUSAKA PROTOCOL (Annex 6: Agenda Item II.4: National Reconciliation: I. General Principles):

4. National Reconciliation implies: (c) That, in the pursuit of national interest, UNITA members participate adequately al all levels and in the various institutions of political, administrative and economic activity.

Annex 6: Agenda Item II.4: National Reconciliation:II. Specific Principles:

7. In the context of national reconciliation, all the first 70 deputies elected on the lists of UNITA candidates in the September 1992 legislative elections shall, except in the cases provided for under article 165 (3) of Law 5/92 of 16 April, be installed in their functions in the National Assembly. The vacancies existing under the terms of article 165 (3) of Law 5/92 of 16 April shall be filled in accordance with the law. The first 70 deputies elected on the lists of UNITA candidates, all those who have already assumed their functions and those who have not yet done so, shall constitute the UNITA parliamentary group. The deputies of the UNITA parliamentary group designated by the party leadership and appointed to functions not compatible with their parliamentary duties shall be replaced in accordance with articles 168 and 169 of Law 5/92 of 16 April. All the deputies in the National Assembly shall enjoy the rights, freedoms, guarantees, immunities and privileges provided by the law.

Annex 6: Agenda Item II.4: National Reconciliation: III. Modalities:

1. In application of the relevant provisions of Article 4 (c) of the general principles of National Reconciliation above, the concrete modalities of participation by UNITA in the various posts in the Government, State administration and diplomatic missions abroad, as agreed between the Government and UNITA and which appear in a document which is an integral part of the annex of the Lusaka Protocol relating to National Reconciliation, shall be specified in a letter to be written by the Angolan authorities to the leaders of that party.

8. In application of the provisions of para. 4 (c) of the general principles relating lo National Reconciliation above, members of UNITA appointed to exercise functions in the Central Government and diplomatic missions abroad, the deputies referred to in para. 7 of the specific principles relating to National Reconciliation above, and the UNITA members who will take up posts in the senior ranks of the National Police, shall assume their functions, al the latest, immediately following the completion of the procedures referred to in para. 3 of the specific principles relating lo agenda item II (1) (b). In any of these cases, if the requisite conditions are certified as fulfilled for the purpose, implementation of the preceding provisions of the present para. 8 of the modalities of National Reconciliation shall be brought forward through agreement between the Government and UNITA.

9. The replacement of any holder of the offices allocated to UNITA at all levels of State administration, during the period that the Lusaka Protocol remains in force, shall be effected in accordance with the provisions of the Protocol. Document relating to UNITA's participation in the central, provincial and local administration and in the diplomatic missions abroad, in accordance with article 1 of the modalities of national reconciliation.

1. Posts within the Central Administration

(i) Ministers
1. Minister of Geology and Mines
2. Minister of Trade
3. Minister of Health
4. Minister of Hotel Business and Tourism

(ii) Deputy Ministers
1. Deputy Minister of Defense
2. Deputy Minister of Home Affairs
3. Deputy Minister of Finance
4. Deputy Minister of Agriculture
5. Deputy Minister of Public Works
6. Deputy Minister of Social Reintegration
7. Deputy Minister of Mass Communication

(iii) Ambassadors
1. Ambassador of Angola in Canada
2. Ambassador of Angola in Mexico
3. Ambassador of Angola in India
4. Ambassador of Angola in Cape Verde
5. Ambassador of Angola in Poland
6. Ambassador of Angola to UNESCO

Implementation History

2002

Intermediate Implementation

The 2002 Luena Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) calls for continuing and completing the implementation of the 1994 Lusaka protocol. The Lusaka protocol contained a powersharing provision stipulating that at least 11 top positions in particular ministries in the Angolan Government be reserved for UNITA officials. Powersharing began in 1997. 

On 10 April 1997, President Dos Santos appointed his cabinet of 28 ministers into the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation. According to the decree signed by the President, four of the 28 cabinet ministers were from the former rebel movement, the National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). They were the Minister of Geology and Mines, Marcos Samondo; the Health Minister, Anastacio Ruben Sikato; the Minister of Trade, Victorino Hossi; and the Minister of Hotels and Tourism, Jorge Valentim. The 24 other ministers were from President Dos Santos' People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA).1

Another report indicated that UNITA occupied four minister posts and seven deputy-minister posts.2

The next year (1998), UNITA and the Angolan Government returned to civil war. During that period of renewed fighting, UNITA officials appear to have continuously held those reserved positions in the cabinet. In 1998, it was announced that 11 of the 32 top posts in government belonged to UNITA.3

On 4 April 2002, the Government and UNITA signed the Luena Memorandum of Understanding which reaffirmed and made some additions to the 1994 Lusaka Protocol. It was reported on 6 December 2002 that President Dos Santos was making changes to his cabinet but that UNITA officials would retain their reserved positions in accordance with the Lusaka Protocol.4

A story in December 2002 suggests that four UNITA officials remained in the cabinet, although two of the names have changed since the formation of the cabinet in 1997. Samondo and Sikato appear to have been replaced by Hamukwaya and Antonio. The report reads: “Four officials from the former UNITA have also been renamed in their previous posts - Albertina Hamukwaya (Health), Jorge Valentim (Hotels and Tourism), Manuel Antonio Africano (Geology and Mines) and Victorino Hossi (Commerce).”5 

  • 1. “New Cabinet Formed in Angola,” Xinhua News Agency, April 10, 1997.
  • 2. “Roundup: Road to Peace in Angola Tortuous,” Xinhua News Agency, April 11, 1997.
  • 3. “Joint Press Conference With Russian Federation Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov and Angola's Minister Of Foreign Affairs Venancio De Sylva Moura,” Official Kremlin Int'l News Broadcast, April 10, 1998.
  • 4. “Angola's President Names New Prime Minister, Reshuffles Cabinet,” Agence France Presse, December 6, 2002.
  • 5. “Finance Minister Ousted in Angolan Cabinet Shake-Up,” World Markets Analysis, December 9, 2002.
2003

Intermediate Implementation

No reports found for 2003. 

2004

Intermediate Implementation

In October of 2004, the president of UNITA gave a speech in Luanda and talked of his concern over the insufficient appointments made by the President in regards to UNITA members in the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation (GURN). Specifically, he called for “the replacement of nine of his members, instead of only three carried out by the Head of State.” It was mentioned in the story that President Dos Santos sent a letter to UNITA headquarters reassuring them that he would keep Albertina Hamukwaya in the cabinet; no other names were mentioned.6 

In December of 2004, Jorge Valentim was replaced by Eduardo Chingunji, Albertina Hamukwaya (mentioned previously) was replaced by Sebastiao Veloso, and Hossi was replaced by Muafumua. All appeared to be MPLA members, not UNITA members. Chingunji later contributed to a book on the success of the MPLA. By the end of 2004, only Manuel Africano (Geology and Mines) was listed as a UNITA representative in the cabinet.7 We consider this a reversal of the powersharing arrangment.  

  • 6. “President Dos Santos Reassures UNITA on Government Reshuffling,” Africa News, November 2, 2004.
  • 7. “President Carries Out Another Minor Reshuffle in Angola,” World Markets Analysis, December 8, 2004.
2005

Minimum Implementation

No additional UNITA members joined the cabinet from 2005 to 2007.

2006

Minimum Implementation

No additional UNITA members joined the cabinet from 2005 to 2007.

2007

Minimum Implementation

No additional UNITA members joined the cabinet from 2005 to 2007.

2008

Minimum Implementation

The last story to mention Manuel Africano was in May of 2008, the year that the MPLA swept the elections. The post-election list of cabinet members had Jose Maria Botelho de Vasconcelos replacing Africano.8 

On 21 September 2008, the Angolan Parliament voted and approved the abolishment of the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation (GURN).9

  • 8. “Polls to Bring Institutional Normality,” Africa News, May 31, 2008.
  • 9. “Angola: Ruling MPLA Praises Unanimous Vote On GURN Abolishment,” Africa News, October 17, 2008.
2009

Minimum Implementation

There was no further UNITA representation in the cabinet from 2009 to 2011.

2010

Minimum Implementation

There was no further UNITA representation in the cabinet from 2009 to 2011.

2011

Minimum Implementation

There was no further UNITA representation in the cabinet from 2009 to 2011.