Powersharing Transitional Government: General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan
PROTOCOL ON POLITICAL QUESTIONS (18 MAY 1997)
The reform of the Government shall be carried out by incorporating representatives of the United Tajik Opposition into the structures of the executive branch, including ministries, departments, local government bodies and judicial and law-enforcement bodies on the basis of a quota. The candidates put forward shall be appointed in accordance with a proposal by the United Tajik Opposition following consultations between the President and the Chairman of the Commission on National Reconciliation.
Protocol on the Guarantees of Implementation of the General Agreement on Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan (28 May 1997)
The good will of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Leadership of the United Tajik Opposition (hereinafter referred to as the Parties) and their commitment to achieving peace and national accord in the country shall be considered as the most important guarantees of strict implementation of the General Agreement. In this context, the material guarantees shall be deemed to be the agreements laid down in the above-mentioned Protocols and Agreements, in particular, to establish the Commission on National Reconciliation with equal representation of the Parties and headed by a representative of UTO; to reserve for representatives of the Opposition (UTO) thirty (30) per cent of posts in the executive power structures and twenty-five (25) per cent of seats in the Central Electoral Commission.
STATUTE OF THE COMMISSION ON NATIONAL RECONCILIATIONS (23 DECEMBER 1996)
III. Functions and Powers of the Commission
7. The Commission shall have the following functions and powers:
Reform of the Government - inclusion of representatives of the opposition (UTO) in the structures of executive authority (members of the government), including ministries, departments, local authorities, judicial bodies and law enforcement agencies, taking the regional principle into account.
Negotiations continued regarding executive positions for UTO leaders.1
Insiders report that President Rakhmonov and the government felt that they won the civil war and do not have to share power with the UTO.2
A major step in the implementation of the power-sharing provision took place in February 1998 when five UTO members were appointed at the cabinet level. On 27 February 1998, Mr. Akbar Turajonzodah, deputy leader of UTO, was appointed First Deputy Prime Minister. He submitted the names of eight UTO representatives to the President to be appointed to senior posts. The UTO had not named its representatives to fill its 25% of seats on the Central Commission on Elections and Referenda. UTO representatives had not been given any regional or local level positions.3 According to state-owned television broadcast in 1998, several UTO leaders were given government posts. Khudoyberdi Kholiqnazarov was appointed Minister of Labour and Employment, Davlat Muhiddinovich Usmonov was appointed Minister of Economy and Foreign Economic Relations, Davlatbek Maqsudov was given the post of Minister of Land Reclamation and Water Resources, Rahim Karimov was appointed Chairman of the Customs Committee, and Ayub Aliyev was to chair the Government Committee on Safety in Industry and Mining.4
In October 1998, Zokir Vaziorv was appointed Deputy Prime Minister. Rakhmonov confirms in a letter to Nuri that 19 senior government positions have been given to UTO members suggesting that the process is complete. The Defence Minister was not appointed as of October 1998. The UTO submitted its candidates for its quarter share in the Central Election Commission in October 1998.5
- 3. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations, (S/1998/374), May 6, 1998.
- 4. "Tajik Opposition Gets Cabinet Posts," BBC Monitoring Central Asia Unit, February 13, 1998, Friday.
- 5. "Report of the Secretary General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations, (S/1998/1029), November 3, 1998.
In early July, it was also reported that Ghayrat Sarhadovich Adhamov was appointed the first deputy minister of defence of Tajikistan, and Sarabek Barotovich Murodov was appointed chairman of the Committee on Precious Metals. As for regional positions, Mahmadjon Davlatov was appointed acting chairman of Roh-i Ohan District of Dushanbe.6
In mid-July it was reported that Saymukhtor Sulaymonovich Qurbonov was appointed acting chairman of Jillikul District of Khatlon Region, and Mahmadshoh Dodikhudoyevich Romov was appointed chairman of Beshkent District of Khatlon Region.7
In late July, it was reported that the chairman of the CNR sub-commission on military issues, Haybullo Sanginov, was appointed first deputy minister of internal affairs. Former UTO field commanders, Hakim Qalandarov and Mirzokhuja Nizomov, were appointed deputy chairman of the Border Protection Committee and chairman of the Customs Committee. Haqnazar Ghoibnazarov, another UTO CNR member was appointed first deputy minister of social security. Abdurahmon Khudoyberdiyevich Nazarov was appointed deputy minister of transport.8
In August of 1999, several UTO leaders were given local posts. Sergey Khasanovich Davlatov was appointed acting chairman of Gharm District, Bobomurod Pulatovich Samodov was appointed acting chairman of Norak town of Khatlon Region, Rustam Anvarovich Qandak was appointed acting chairman of Taboshar town of Leninobod Region, Fozilbek Amirbekov was appointed acting chairman of Ishkoshim District of Mountainous Badakhshon Autonomous Region, Sohibnazar Jabborovich Pirov was appointed acting chairman of Panj District of Khatlon Region.9
The November report by the Secretary General reported a total of 14 UTO appointments to district and city level posts.10
- 6. "President Rahmonov gives government posts to opposition," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 9, 1999, Friday.
- 7. "Tajik President Gives Posts In Southern Local Authorities To Opposition," BBC Monitoring Central Asia Unit, July 19, 1999.
- 8. "Opposition get posts in power-wielding bodies," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 21, 1999.
- 9. "Tajik Head Gives New Local Posts To Opposition Representatives," BBC Monitoring Central Asia Unit, August 10, 1999, Tuesday.
- 10. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations, (S/1999/1127), November 4, 1999.
After elections in February of 2000, the National Reconciliation Commission (CNR) was formally disbanded and UTO appointments ended. According to Nakaya (2009: 271) 54 UTO members were appointed to the government as a whole. After president Rakhmonov had consolidated his power (after 24 months), he removed the majority of the executive positions.11
- 11. Sumie Nakaya, “Aid and Transition From a War Economy to an Oligarchy in Post-war Tajikistan,” Central Asian Survey 28(3) (2009): 259-273.
No UTO appointments were made in 2001. Three prominent UTO members were dismissed from the government in 2000 and 2001.12
- 12. Sumie Nakaya, “Aid and Transition From a War Economy to an Oligarchy in Post-war Tajikistan,” 259-273.
At a 2002 news conference celebrating the fifth anniversary of the 1997 General Agreement, former UTO head and leader of the Islamic Revival Party, Sayed Abdullo Nuri made several unexpected comments about the status of the UTO’s 30% quota that suggested he was satisfied with the government’s allocation of 50 appointments. Nuri later stated that UTO representatives received all that was expected, roughly 50 official positions.13
- 13. "Threats to Tajik peace still exist, Islamic party leader says," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, April 7, 2002.
No developments observed this year.
No developments observed this year.
No developments observed this year.
The 1997 agreement does not give a time frame for the duration of the power-sharing transitional government. By 2006, the power-sharing provision of the 1997 accord was dismantled. The last remaining member of the UTO in a senior government position (Emergency Situation Minister Mirzo Zioyev) was dismissed in 2006. In 2009, he was reportedly killed in a gunfight between security forces and narcotics trafficking gangs along the Tajik-Afghan border.14
- 14. Sumie Nakaya, “Aid and Transition From a War Economy to an Oligarchy in Post-war Tajikistan,” 259-273.