Paramilitary Groups: Agreement on Ending Hostilities in the Republic of Congo

AGREEMENT ON ENDING HOSTILITIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CONGO

(29 DECEMBER 1999)

Chapter II: The Monitoring Commission for the Agreements on Cease-Fire and End of Hostilities

Article 2: The signatories of this agreement agree to the establishment of a mixed and equal Monitoring Commission for the Agreement on Ceasefire and Ending Hostilities, responsible for:

Ensuring the demilitarisation of political parties, movements, and associations.

Implementation History

2000

Full Implementation

The accord signed in December 1999 did not have provisions for paramilitary groups as clear as those contained in the accord signed in November 1999. The November accord demanded the dissolution of all militias that were signatories of the accord. As the December 1999 accord was the extended version of the November accord, and the militia groups were affiliated with the political parties, it is safe to assume that the provision for the demilitarization of political parties was related to paramilitary groups associated with political parties.

Major combatant groups such as Ninjas, Cobras, and Cocoyes were affiliated with the Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI) headed by former Prime Minister Kolelas; the Congolese Labor Party (PCT) was headed by Sassou-Nguesso and the Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS) was headed by former President Lissouba. According to Themner (2011), after the 1997 law banning militia groups, the Republic of Congo government started to forcefully disarm militia groups. This initiative, however, was not very successful and violence recurred in 1999. Parties reached a settlement after signing two accords: one in November 1999 and one in December 1999. After these accords, militia groups were formally dissolved.1

  • 1. Anders Themner, Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilization and Relationships, (London: Routledge, 2011).
2001

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

2002

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

2003

Full Implementation

In April 2003, an accord was signed in which a splinter ex-Ninja group and some 2,300 ex-Ninjas surrendered their arms.2 Further information on militia groups was not available. Militia groups were banned and all militia groups, including splinter factions, were disarmed and demobilized between 1997 and 2003.

  • 2. A. Caramés, “Congo (PNDDR, 2004-2008),” DDR 2009: Analysis of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) Programs in the World during 2008 (Bellaterra: School for a Culture of Peace, 2009), 59-64.
2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.