Paramilitary Groups: Abidjan Peace Agreement

ARTICLE 12

The Executive Outcomes shall be withdrawn five weeks after the deployment of the Neutral Monitoring Group (NMG). As from the date of the deployment of the Neutral Monitoring Group, the Executive Outcomes shall be confined to barracks under the supervision of the Joint Monitoring Group and the Neutral Monitoring Group. Government shall use all its endeavours, consistent with its treaty obligations, to repatriate other foreign troops no later than three months after the deployment of the Neutral Monitoring Group or six months after the signing of the Peace Agreement, whichever is earlier.

Implementation History

1996

No Implementation

Executive Outcomes was a private military firm founded in South Africa by Eeben Barlow, the former Lieutenant-Colonel of the South African Defence Force. There were no reports of Executive Outcomes soldiers leaving Sierra Leone in 1996. 

1997

Full Implementation

The South African mercenaries belonging to Executive Outcomes were contracted by the government to protect the diamond mines from rebels and thieves. The exact number of mercenaries in the country is not clear, but according to one report, “they numbered 250 a little over a year ago when Freetown was within reach of Revolutionary United Front guns.” The BBC reported that troops from Executive Outcomes left Sierra Leone in late January or early February 1997.1

  • 1. "Executive Outcomes leaves Sierra Leone," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 5, 1997.
1998

Full Implementation

No further developments regarding the paramilitary firm known as Executive Outcomes. 

RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.2

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 2.  "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.