Military Reform: National Pact

TITLE II

ON THE FINAL CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND ON THE SETTLEMENT OF QUESTIONS EMERGING FROM THE SITUATION OF ARMED CONFLICT

7. Within sixty days following the signature of the Pact, a programme will be put into effect comprised of the following measures:

A -Within the framework of measures for restoring confidence, eliminating factors of insecurity, and the installation of a permanent state of security:

-all the combatants of the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad will be integrated into the various uniformed forces of the State, on an individual and voluntary basis and in accordance with criteria for assessing competence,

-special units of the armed forces will be created for one year, composed mainly of integrated combatants from the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad,

-an internal security corps will be instituted {Gendarmerie, Goum Guards, Police} composed of all sections of the local populations including integrated combatants from the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad, which will be provided to local authorities within their police powers,

-special units of the army will be created, open to all sections of the local populations, whose mission will be limited to the preservation of the integrity and external security of the country's frontiers.

Those dispositions which refer to the integration of all the combatants and members of the Movements and Fronts mentioned above, are contingent upon the return of the latter with their arms. This operation will be carried out in conjunction with the Ceasefire Commission;

The security and physical protection of the re-integrated combatants and members of the Movements and Fronts, as well as that of the repatriated displaced populations, will be entirely guaranteed;

B -In addition, and in the same spirit of restoring confidence, eliminating factors of insecurity and installing an atmosphere of permanent security, there will be a substantial, gradual and appropriate reduction of the armed forces presently in the North, leading to the withdrawal of the majority. This operation will be carried out in accordance with:

-the final ending of hostilities, according to the ceasefire determined in paragraph 5 above,

-the organisation of the security mechanisms and arrangements described in paragraph 7.A above,

-the redefinition of the objectives of the national army charged with future national defence: this implies a broad redeployment programme involving military installations and bases outside the urban areas, pastures and grazing areas as well as the transformation of certain army installations into centres and schools for military or para-military training, and the use of some redundant barrack facilities as centres for professional training.

Implementation History

1992

No Implementation

No information is available regarding the integration of the Azaouad movement combatants. Nor is any information available on other military reform. Nevertheless, the government that came into power was entirely civilian. This was possible despite the government’s decision to appoint a civilian defense minister which led to an initial period of mistrust between the government and the military.1

  • 1. Robin-Edward Poulton and Ibrahim ag Youssouf, A Peace in Timbuktu: Democratic Governance, Development and African Peacemaking (United Nations Publication, 1998), 88.
1993

Minimum Implementation

Negotiations on reintegration modality took place between the government and the Azaouad movement representatives in 1993. The government of Mali had proposed reintegration be on an individual basis and an optional free choice, while the Tuaregs demanded that this condition be applied to all elements of the Tuaregs who had rebelled against the government. On February 14, 1993, the government of Mali and the Azaouad movement signed an agreement to integrate about 600 Tuaregs into army units.2 Accordingly, a total of 610 Tuaregs combatants were integrated from the following rebel groups:

MPA= Le Mouvement Populaire de l.Azawad (Popular Movement of Azawad) - 120
FPLA = Le Front Populaire de Liberation de l.Azawad (Popular Front for the Liberation of Azawad) - 150
ARLA = L’Armee Revolutionnaire de Liberation de l.Azawad (Revolutionary Army for the Liberation of Azawad) - 140
FIAA = Le Front Islamique Arabe de l.Azawad (The Islamic Arab Front of Azawad) – 190
Independent units – 10 3

  • 2. "Mali: 600 Taureg Rebels Integrated into National Army," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 15, 1993.
  • 3. Kalifa Keita, Conflict And Conflict Resolution in The Sahel: the Tuareg Insurgency in Mali,"Strategic Studies Institute, 1998, accessed June 14, 2011, www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub200.pdf.
1994

Minimum Implementation

No significant progress was made in terms of integrating further ex-combatants into the army units. After the April and May negotiations in 1994, the MFUA demanded that the 2,360 combatants be integrated into the security forces, yet feelings of discontent emerged within the rebel movements when MUFA demanded 40% for the FIAA combatants and 20% each for other three movements’ combatants. The MUFA allegedly had 10,000 combatants and demanded that 3,000 of these be integrated into the armed forces and that 4,000 be re-inserted into society. These figures were largely inflated and were larger than the Malian armed force. The government of Mali had offered to take 1,000 MUFA soldiers into the army.4

  • 4. Robin-Edward Poulton and Ibrahim ag Youssouf, A Peace in Timbuktu, 70.
1995

Minimum Implementation

No significant progress was reported. 

1996

Full Implementation

Some very important developments took place in 1996 regarding the integration of armed combatants and the military code of conduct.  On the integration side, 664 combatants from the MPA, 253 from the FPLA, 148 from the ARLA and 135 from the FIAA were integrated into the army, national guard and gendarmerie. These integrations took place at the ranks of enlisted men, noncommissioned officers, and officers. Altogether 24 combatants were appointed at the rank of officer.5

With regards to the military code of conduct, the Malian defense minister organized a seminar on civil-military relations in July in the capital city Bamako. The aim for the seminar was, in light of the decades of military dictatorship, to impress the new democratic culture onto the armed forces. These seminars were said to enrich the military curricula during the crucial time of training newly integrated former Tuareg rebels.6

  • 5. Kalifa Keita, "Conflict And Conflict Resolution in The Sahel."
  • 6. Robin-Edward Poulton Ibrahim ag Youssouf, A Peace in Timbuktu, 74.
1997

Full Implementation

Military reform and integration took place in 1996 as provided in the 1992 National Pact. 

1998

Full Implementation

Military reform and integration took place in 1996 as provided in the 1992 National Pact.  By 1998, Mali had the following security and military strengths: Army - 7,000 persons; Naval Service 70 persons; Air Service 450 persons; Gendarmerie 1,500 person; National Guard of Mali 700 persons; and National Police 1000 persons.7

  • 7. Kalifa Keita, "Conflict And Conflict Resolution in The Sahel."
1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.