Military Reform: General Peace Agreement for Mozambique

Protocol IV.I. Formation of the Mozambican Defence Force

i. General principles

1. The Mozambican Defence Force (FADM) shall be formed for service throughout the national territory.

2. The FADM:

(a) Has as its general purpose the defence and safeguarding of the country's sovereignty, independence and territory. During the period between the cease-fire and the time when the new Government takes office, the FADM may, under the FADM High Command, act in cooperation with the Police Command to protect civilian inhabitants against crime and violence of all kinds. Additional functions of the FADM shall be to provide assistance in crisis or emergency situations arising in the country as a result of natural disasters and to provide support for reconstruction and development efforts;

(b) Shall be non-partisan, career, professionally trained, and competent; it shall be made up exclusively of Mozambican citizens who are volunteers and are drawn from the forces of both Parties. It shall serve the country with professionalism and respect the democratic order and the rule of law. The composition of the FADM should preclude all forms of racial or ethnic discrimination or discrimination based on language or religious affiliation;

3. The process of forming the FADM shall begin after the entry into force of the cease-fire immediately following the inauguration of the Commission provided for in Protocol I of 18 October 1991, to be called the Supervisory and Monitoring Commission (CSC). This process shall be completed prior to the commencement of the election campaign;

4. The process of forming the FADM shall be conducted simultaneously with the concentration, disarmament and integration into civilian life of the personnel demobilised in stages as a result of the ceasefire. The Government and RENAMO shall be responsible for contributing units drawn from the existing forces of each side; this process shall proceed until the new units of the FADM have been formed, with all existing units being demobilised when the FADM has reached full strength.

5. The neutrality of the FADM during the period between the cease-fire and the time when the new Government takes office shall be guaranteed by the Parties through the Commission referred to in section I.iii.1.a of this Protocol.

6. By the time of the elections, only the FADM shall exist and shall have the structure agreed upon between the Parties; no other forces may remain in existence. All elements of the existing armed forces of the two Parties which are not incorporated into the FADM shall be demobilised during the period envisaged in section VI.i.3 of this Protocol.

ii. Personnel

1. The Parties agree that the troop strength of the FADM up until the time when the new Government takes office shall be as follows:

(a) Army: 24,000
(b) Air Force: 4,000
(c) Navy: 2,000

2. The personnel of the FADM in each of the service branches shall be provided by the FAM and the forces of RENAMO, each side contributing 50 per cent.

iii. FADM command structures 1/

1. The parties agree to establish a Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambican Defence Force (CCFADM) on the following basis:

a) CCFADM shall have specific responsibility for overseeing the process of forming the FADM and shall operate under the authority of CSC;

(b) CCFADM is the body responsible for the formation of the FADM until the time when the new Government takes office. FADM shall be headed by a High Command (CS), which shall be subordinate to CCFADM. After the new Government takes office, the FADM shall be placed under the authority of the new Ministry of Defence or any other body which the new Government may establish;

(c) CCFADM shall be composed of representatives of the FAM and the RENAMO forces as members, who shall be assisted by representatives of the countries selected by the Parties to advise in the process of forming the FADM. CCFADM shall be inaugurated on the date of the entry into force of the ceasefire (E-Day);

(d) CCFADM shall draw up directives on the phasing of the establishment of the FADM structures and shall propose to CSC:

- The rules governing the FADM;
- The budget to be provided for the FADM until the new Government takes office;
- The criteria for selection and the selection of FAM personnel and RENAMO forces for the formation of the FADM;
- The names of the commanding officers of the main commands.

2. FADM High Command

(a) The general mission of CS shall be to act on the directives issued by CCFADM, taking into account the establishment of the FADM structures and support for the FADM;

(b) Until the new Government takes office, the command of FADM shall be exercised by two general officers of equal rank, appointed by each of the Parties. Decisions of the command shall be valid only when signed by these two general officers;

(c) The FADM command structure shall be strictly non-political and shall receive directives and orders only through the appropriate chain of command;

(d) The FADM shall have a single logistics service for all three branches. To that end, a Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall be established under the authority of the FADM High Command;

(e) Appointments to the FADM High Command and the commands of the three branches of the FADM and the Logistics Command shall be proposed by CCFADM and approved by CSC;

(f) Until the new Government takes office, the FADM High Command shall be assisted by the General Staff, with departments headed by general officers or senior officers proposed by CCFADM and approved by CSC.

3. Command of the Army, Air Force and Navy and the Logistics Command:

The FADM High Command shall have authority over the Commands of the three service branches (Army, Air Force and Navy) and the Logistics Command, which shall be organized as follows:

(a) Army Command

1. The structure of the Army Command shall encompass the military regions under the direct authority of the Army Commander, whose functions are to be determined but which may include the organization and preparation of forces, training, justice, discipline and logistic support to assigned forces.

2. Each military region shall have a commanding officer holding the rank of general, who shall be assisted by a deputy commander.

3. The headquarters of the military regions shall be proposed by the Commander of the Army and approved by CS.

(b) Air Force Command

The Air Force shall be formed having regard to the training and skills of the personnel of the existing Air Force and the existing RENAMO forces, in accordance with the provisions of the directives issued by CCFADM.

(c) Navy Command

The Navy shall be formed having regard to the training and skills of the personnel of the existing Navy and the RENAMO forces, in accordance with the provisions of the directives issued by CCFADM.

(d) Logistics and Infrastructure Command

1. A Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall be set up under the direct authority of the FADM High Command.

2. The Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall have the overall mission of planning and providing administrative and logistic support for the FADM (Army, Air Force and Navy) and ensuring delivery of such support through the FADM General Services. It shall, in particular, be responsible for production and procurement logistics.

3. The Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall be headed by a general, assisted by a deputy commander and a general staff which shall, initially, include the following sections:

- Infrastructure;
- General services;
- Equipment;
- Finance.

4. The Logistics and Infrastructure Command shall have authority over such support units as may be assigned to it.

iv. Timetable for the process

(a) The formation of the FADM shall commence with the appointment of the following:

- CCFADM, prior to the entry into force of the cease-fire (E-Day);
- The FADM High Command on E-Day + 1;
- The commanders of the three service branches and the logistics command;
- The commanders of the military regions;
- The unit commanders.

(b) General staffs shall be organized immediately following the appointment of each command.

(c) The system of administrative and logistics support shall be organized taking into account the new size of the FADM, in accordance with the principle of utilizing or transforming existing structures on the basis of the plans of the FADM High Command, as approved by CCFADM.

v. Technical assistance of foreign countries

The parties shall inform the mediators within 7 (seven) days after the signing of the cease-fire protocol the countries which are to be invited to provide assistance in the process of forming the FADM.

Implementation History

1992

Intermediate Implementation

The Supervision and Control Commission (CSC) of the Mozambique General Peace Accord (GPA) held its first meeting in the hall of the Maputo Executive Council on Nov. 4, 1992 under the guidance of Aldo Ajello, the UN Secretary-General's interim representative in Mozambique. The meeting established working procedures for the Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambique Defence Armed Forces (CCFADM).1 The Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambique Defence Armed Forces would be headed by army commander Tobias Dai for the government, and Mateus Ngonyamo for the Mozambique National Resistance.

The military reform was one of the most extensively developed parts of the 1992 GPA, providing for the demobilization, disarmament, and reintegration plan (DDR). Along with the DDR, the Armed Defense Force of Mozambique (FADM) was established. Yet, finding volunteers to join the army proved difficult. While the GPA agreement recommended 30,000 for the FADM, the actual number of volunteers at the time of the general election was only around one third of that number.

  • 1. “Mozambique: First Meeting of Peace Agreement Supervision and Control Commission,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, November 6, 1992.
1993

Intermediate Implementation

The Portuguese government was willing to take part in the training of the future united Mozambican Armed Forces.2 The Portuguese government had allocated 460,000 Portuguese contos towards the formation of the Mozambique Defence Armed Forces. The fund was to pay for the planned operations to be carried out within the framework of the single army, notably for the renovation of the Nacala and Catembe barracks in Nampula Province and Maputo Province, respectively, where Mozambican special forces would be trained. Nogueira, the visiting Portuguese Defense Minister, said that in 1993 alone, Portugal would contribute about 900,000 Portuguese contos.3

“The Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambique Defence Armed Forces (CCFADM), established following the October 1992 peace treaty, reached agreement on Aug. 14 on the formation of the future Mozambique Defence Armed Forces (FADM). The documents, signed by senior officers from the government and from the Mozambique National Resistance (MNR or RENAMO), related to the timetable for the formation of the FADM, the structure of its supreme command, and guidelines on the selection of personnel to receive training at the Nyanga Military Training Centre in Zimbabwe. These guidelines were employed immediately to select 100 officers, 50 from each side, who began a 16-week course at Nyanga on Aug. 17. At the end of the course they would be required to train FADM infantry battalions. A further 540 soldiers were expected to attend the course.”.4

  • 2. “Mozambique: Portuguese Official Says Portugal to Help With Army Training and Peace-Keeping,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, March 5, 1993.
  • 3. “Mozambique: Visiting Portuguese Defence Minister on Aid for National Army,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 14, 1993.
  • 4. "Progress in formation of unified army," Keesing's Record of World Events
    (Volume 39), August 1993, 39585.
1994

Intermediate Implementation

“On Aug. 24 President Joaquim Chissano, who had himself been demobilized as a general in the FPLM on Aug. 12, reported that the new FADM would have only 11,000 of its intended 30,000 members operational by the elections in October.”5

On December 20, 1994 it was reported by the Mozambique Information Agency (AIM) that the new Mozambique Defence Armed Forces (FADM) had trampled on the existing laws of the country and the constitution of the republic by establishing a new military judicial system.

A source cited by AIM said that the new system was a copy of the military judicial structures in force in Portugal. The new system consisted of a Supreme Military Tribunal, to which three regional military tribunals were seconded. The regional tribunals were based in Maputo, Beira, and Nampula and served southern, central, and northern Mozambique.6

However, Supreme Court Deputy Chairman Norberto Carrilho had described the system as being in serious violation of the constitution and existing laws. The senior Supreme Court official had warned that a declaration that the system was unconstitutional might be approved unless its authors revoked it.7

  • 5. "Formation of new army," Keesing's Record of World Events (Volume 40), August 1994, 40127.
  • 6. “Mozambique: Agency Reports New Military Judicial System Established,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 21, 1994.
  • 7. “Mozambique: Supreme Court Official Describes Military Court System as 'Unconstitutional',” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 29, 1994.
1995

Intermediate Implementation

Mozambique Defence Armed Forces soldiers staged a mutiny at the Military Hospital area in Maputo on 16 March 1995. Joaquim Chissano, President of the Republic and Chief in Command of the FADM, said he did not think that the mutinies staged by soldiers in different parts of the country were politically motivated but due to a lack of civic education, which would be reintroduced into the military. He proposed to eliminate the joint command and create a direct command, resume civic education programs in the FADM forces, and adopt more sound disciplinary measures which would correspond with what is required of an army. He intended to do this without creating panic, since the new military was made up of two groups of armed forces which had previously fought each other.8

  • 8. “Mozambique: Chissano on Changes to Armed Forces, Need for 'Civic Education',” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, March 22, 1995.
1996

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

1997

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

1998

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.