Military Reform: General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan

Protocol on Military Issues (8 March 1997)

I. General Provisions:

1. The reintegration, disarmament and disbandment of the armed units of the United Tajik Opposition as well as the reform of the governmental power structures of the Republic of Tajikistan shall be carried out during the transition period by the President of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Commission on National Reconciliation in close cooperation with the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) and in accordance with the timetable set forth in paragraphs 5, 9 and 11 of this Protocol.

3. The Government and the United Tajik Opposition shall exchange the necessary information concerning the reintegration of the Opposition's military units and the reform of the power structures of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan.

II. THE REINTEGRATION, DISARMAMENT AND DISBANDMENT OF THE ARMED UNITS OF THE UNITED TAJIK OPPOSITION:

5. The reintegration, disarmament and disbandment of the armed units of the United Tajik Opposition shall be carried out in stages.

(a) During the first stage, the United Tajik Opposition shall assemble its armed units in the assembly points agreed upon by the Parties in the Vanj, Garm, Jirgatal, Komsomolabad, Kofaringan, Rushan, Tavildara and Tajikabad districts and the towns of Khorog and Magmurud in the Lenin district, where personnel shall be registered and counted and given medical examinations. At the assembly points, an inventory shall be taken of weapons, military equipment and ammunition, which shall be stored in separate, securely guarded premises. This stage shall be carried out within two months of the date on which the Commission on National Reconciliation begins its work.

(b) During this stage, the armed units of the United Tajik Opposition situated in the territory of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, shall be transferred in stages to the territory of Tajikistan to previously determined assembly points from among those specified above through the Ishkashim and Nizhny Pyanj passage points. The armed units of the United Tajik Opposition shall cross the border without weapons or ammunition. With the consent of the Afghan authorities, the subcommission on military issues of the Commission on National Reconciliation and UNMOT shall travel to the Islamic State of Afghanistan and draw up a register of the weapons and ammunition. The collective peacekeeping forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) shall, under the supervision of UNMOT, accompany the personnel, weapons and ammunition to the assembly points, where the weapons and ammunition on the register shall be stored in separate, guarded premises. The base camps and training centres of the armed units of the United Tajik Opposition situated outside Tajikistan shall be dismantled and closed simultaneously with the transfer of the units referred to to the assembly points in the territory of Tajikistan.

(c) During the second stage, no later than one month after the assembling of the armed units of the United Tajik Opposition in the assembly points has been completed, those units shall be made into corresponding units of the regular armed forces of Tajikistan. They shall take the military oath and shall be given new uniforms, be assigned to the corresponding governmental power structures of Tajikistan in separate units and be subordinated to the corresponding chain of command. The relevant laws and military regulations of Tajikistan shall apply to them.

(d) During the third stage, the Joint Review Board shall certify the personnel of the reintegrated units of the United Tajik Opposition, determining, on an individual basis, fitness for further military service and the nature of such service and shall also make recommendations for appointments to command positions. Persons who do not express the wish to continue service or who are found unfit for service for reasons of health or found to be incompetent and persons having a criminal record prior to May 1992 shall be demobilized and returned to civilian life.

(e) The measures provided for in the first, second and third stages of the reintegration of the armed units of the United Tajik Opposition into the power structures of the Government of Tajikistan shall be carried out within six months of the date on which the Commission on National Reconciliation begins its work.

(f) In the fourth stage of reintegration, the former units of the United Tajik Opposition will be completely merged with the governmental power structures. This process must be fully completed by the end of the transition period, i.e. before 1 July 1998.

II. THE REINTEGRATION, DISARMAMENT AND DISBANDMENT OF THE ARMED UNITS OF THE UNITED TAJIK OPPOSITION:

(6). The reintegrated units of the United Tajik Opposition shall be sent to their places of permanent assignment and quartered in separate barracks. A separate unit, the strength of which shall be determined by the President of Tajikistan and the United Tajik Opposition, shall be stationed in Dushanbe a week before the Commission on National Reconciliation begins its work.

7. Former members of the governmental power structures who were compelled to quit their posts because of the civil conflict and have expressed the wish to continue their service shall on the recommendation of the Joint Review Board be reinstated into their former or equivalent positions.

8. Persons who were members of the armed units of the United Tajik Opposition and have expressed the wish to receive military training shall be afforded equally with other nationals of Tajikistan the possibility of attending the relevant training institutions.

Implementation History

1997

Minimum Implementation

According to article 5(c), the entire UTO force of roughly 5000 troops were to be integrated into the national army. In 1997, over 1,000 UTO fighters registered for integration in Tavildara and Garm.1 The first group of UTO fighters took the military oath in December 1997.2 

  • 1. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1997/859), November 5, 1997.
  • 2. "Chronology, Accord 10," Conciliation Resources, 2001.
1998

Intermediate Implementation

The Joint Central Review Commission was set up to evaluate the fitness of UTO fighters for military service.3 

  • 3. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1998/1029), November 3, 1998.
1999

Intermediate Implementation

The CNR reported that 2,375 UTO fighters had been assigned to regular military units, as follows: Ministry of Defense – 460 integrated and 464 in the process; Ministry of Interior – 304; Tajik Border Forces – 1,107; and the committee on Emergency Situations – 40.4 

  • 4. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1999/514), May 6, 1999.
2000

Full Implementation

When the CNR was completed in 2000, around 4,498 UTO fighters had been integrated into the armed forces.5

  • 5. Rashid Abdullo, "Implementation of the 1997 General Agreement: Success, Dilemmas, and Challenges," in Politics of Compromise: the Tajikistan Peace Process, eds. K. Abdullaev and C. Barnes (London: Conciliation Resources), Accord 10: 48–53.
2001

Full Implementation

No further efforts to integrate UTO troops into the military were reported after the close of the CNR in 2000.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.