Military Reform: Agreement for the Reform and Civil Concord

Article 3: On Solutions and Remedies.

The two Parties undertake to respect the principles and to carry out the general measures below.

a. It is above all necessary to guarantee security for everybody through the struggle against the impunity of the perpetrators of crimes of all sorts, of extortions and robbery, and through the demobilizing of the FRUD combatants. It will be necessary to establish defence forces as well as security and police forces which are genuinely national and representative of all the components of the national community, in order to avoid any aberration in the future which might be harmful to the Unity and the Nation (CHAPTER II).

Article 5: On Disarmament and Demobilization.

c) The demobilized elements of the FRUD-Army benefit from the integration into the corps of defence and security or from the insertion into social life or from compensation.

d) For a successful implementation of these operations a mixed commission will be established.

It will be charged with the complete identification of all combatants according to the enclosed form supplied by the Administration.

Article 15: On the Equality of all Citizens.

b) Fairly and with respect to acquired qualifications the civil and military institutions of the Republic will reflect, within their staff and hierarchy, the plurality of communities making up the Djiboutian people.

Implementation History

2001

Minimum Implementation

FRUD combatants were assembled in two locations, Ribta and Waddi, in the north of the country to be demobilized, disarmed and integrated into the country's security forces. According to a report, 1,160 combatants were counted and only 300 members of FRUD were enrolled in the armed forces and the police.1

  • 1. "Permanent Mission of the Republic of Djibouti to the United Nations addressed to the Department for Disarmament Affairs on the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects," United Nations (A/CONF.192/BMS/2003/CRP.105), July 7, 2003, http://www.poa-iss.org/CountryProfiles/CountryProfileInfo.aspx?Acc=M&CoI=55.
2002

Minimum Implementation

No further reports of reform were reported. It was suggested that little overall reform took place in the military and the dominance of the Somali Issas ethnic group continued.2

2003

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

No Implementation

No further developments observed.